New Delhi

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New Delhi

(dĕl`ē), city (1991 pop. 294,149), capital of India and of Delhi state, N central India, on the right bank of the Yamuna River. Predominantly an administrative center, it was constructed between 1912 and 1929 to replace Calcutta (now KolkataKolkata
, formerly Calcutta
, city (1991 pop. 10,916,272), capital of West Bengal state, E India, on the Hugli River. It is the second largest city in India and one of the largest in the world.
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) as capital of British India; New Delhi was officially inaugurated in 1931. The city is also a transportation hub and trade center with manufactures in electronics, automobile parts, engineering products, and electrical appliances.

Designed by architects Sir Edwin LutyensLutyens, Sir Edwin Landseer
, 1869–1944, English architect. He began his career designing small houses in Surrey and later executed a series of large country establishments, many of them complete with furniture and gardens.
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 and Herbert Baker, New Delhi has broad, symmetrically aligned streets that provide vistas of historic monuments. Between the main government buildings a broad boulevard leads east to west from India Gate, a massive war memorial arch (built 1921), through a great court to the resplendent sandstone and marble Government House (formerly the viceroy's palace; now the residence of India's president). In the southern section of the city is the prayer ground where Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated (1948). In the west are Balmiki and Lakshminarayan temples, which Gandhi frequented; the Swaminarayan Akshardham temple (2005) is is East Delhi across the Yamuna. The city has many sports stadiums and medical institutes. In recent years metropolitan New Delhi, including Old DelhiDelhi
, union territory and city, N central India. The union territory, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (2001 provisional pop. 13,782,976), 573 sq mi (1,484 sq km), is on the Delhi plain, which is crossed by the Yamuna River and stretches between the Aravalli
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, has experienced overcrowding and severe air pollution. The city opened its subway system, the second in India, in 2002.

New Delhi

 

the southern, administrative part of Delhi, the capital of India. New Delhi is the site of the principal governmental institutions of India, which has led to the incorrect use of the name New Delhi to designate Delhi.