Hague, The

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Hague, The

(hāg), Du. 's Gravenhage or Den Haag, Fr. La Haye, city (1994 pop. 445,279), administrative and governmental seat of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, capital of South Holland prov., W Netherlands, on the North Sea.

Economy

Although it has some industries (the manufacture of clothing, metal goods, printed materials, and food products), The Hague's economy revolves around government administration, which is centered there rather than in AmsterdamAmsterdam
, city (1994 pop. 724,096), constitutional capital and largest city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, North Holland prov., W Netherlands, on the IJ, an inlet of the Markermeer.
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, the constitutional capital of the Netherlands. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch legislature, the Dutch supreme court, the International Court of Justice, and foreign embassies. The city is the headquarters of numerous companies, including the Royal Dutch Shell petroleum company. Also of economic importance are banking, insurance, and trade.

Points of Interest

Among the numerous landmarks of The Hague is the Binnenhof, which grew out of the 13th-century palace and houses both chambers of the legislature; the Binnenhof contains the 13th-century Hall of Knights (Dutch Ridderzaal), where many historic meetings have been held. Nearby is the Gevangenenpoort, the 14th-century prison where Jan de WittWitt, Jan de
, 1625–72, Dutch statesman. Like his father, Jacob de Witt, burgomaster of Dort, he became a leading opponent of the house of Orange and played a vital role in the three successive Dutch Wars.
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 and Cornelius de WittWitt, Jan de
, 1625–72, Dutch statesman. Like his father, Jacob de Witt, burgomaster of Dort, he became a leading opponent of the house of Orange and played a vital role in the three successive Dutch Wars.
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 were murdered in 1672. The Mauritshuis, a 17th-century structure built as a private residence for John Maurice of Nassau, is an art museum and contains several of the greatest works of RembrandtRembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn or Ryn
, 1606–69, Dutch painter, etcher, and draftsman, b. Leiden. Rembrandt is acknowledged as the greatest master of the Dutch school.
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 and VermeerVermeer, Jan or Johannes
, 1632–75, Dutch genre and landscape painter. He was born in Delft, where he spent his entire life. He was also known as Vermeer of Delft and as Jan or Johannes van der Meer.
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.

The Peace Palace (Dutch Vredespaleis), which was financed by Andrew CarnegieCarnegie, Andrew
, 1835–1919, American industrialist and philanthropist, b. Dunfermline, Scotland. His father, a weaver, found it increasingly difficult to get work in Scottish factories and in 1848 brought his family to Allegheny (now Pittsburgh), Pa.
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 and opened in 1913, houses the Permanent Court of Arbitration and, since 1945, the International Court of Justice. Among the other notable buildings are the former royal palace; the Groote Kerk, a Gothic church (15th–16th cent.); the Nieuwe Kerk, containing Spinoza's tomb; the 16th-century town hall; and the Netherlands Conference Center (1969). Educational institutions in The Hague include schools of music and international law. Northwest of the city is ScheveningenScheveningen
, urban district, South Holland prov., W Netherlands, on the North Sea and near The Hague, of which it is a part. It is a popular bathing resort and fishing center.
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, a popular North Sea resort and a fishing port.

History

The Hague was (13th cent.) the site of a hunting lodge of the counts of Holland ('s Gravenhage means "the count's hedge"). William, count of Holland, began (c.1250) the construction of a palace, around which a town grew in the 14th and 15th cent. In 1586 the States-General of the United Provs. of the Netherlands convened in The Hague, which later (17th cent.) became the residence of the stadtholders and the capital of the Dutch republic. In the 17th cent., The Hague rose to be one of the chief diplomatic and intellectual centers of Europe. William III (William of Orange), stadtholder of Holland and other Dutch provinces as well as king of England (1689–1702), was born in The Hague.

In the early 19th cent., after Amsterdam had become the constitutional capital of the Netherlands, The Hague received its own charter from Louis BonaparteBonaparte
, Ital. Buonaparte , family name of Napoleon I, emperor of the French. Parentage

Napoleon's father,

Carlo Buonaparte, 1746–85, a petty Corsican nobleman, was a lawyer in Ajaccio.
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. It was (1815–30) the alternative meeting place, with BrusselsBrussels
, Fr. Bruxelles, Du. Brussel, city and region (1995 pop. 948,122), 63 sq mi (162 sq km), capital of Belgium, central Belgium, on the Senne River and at the junction of the Charleroi-Brussels and Willebroek canals.
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, of the legislature of the United Netherlands. The Dutch royal residence from 1815 to 1948, the city was greatly expanded and beautified in the mid-19th cent. by King William II. In 1899 the First Hague Conference met there on the initiative of Nicholas II of Russia; ever since, The Hague has been a center for the promotion of international justice and arbitration.

Hague, The

 

(’s Gravenhage, Den Haag), a city in the Netherlands, the residence of the royal court and the seat of the government. The Hague is the administrative center of South Holland. The greater metropolitan area of The Hague had a population of 728,100 in 1969. The city in effect has merged with the seaside resort and fishing port of Scheveningen on the shores of the North Sea. The Hague is a transport junction: a network of canals, motor highways, and railway lines link it with such cities as Amsterdam (the official capital) and the port of Rotterdam, on the lower reaches of the Rhine.

The Hague is mainly important as the administrative and political center of the country. However, in the postwar period it has also acquired considerable importance as an economic center. Concentrated in The Hague are important industrial enterprises for the manufacture of radio, television, electronics, telephone, and telegraph equipment. In the suburbs is the Ypenburg Airport, where the Fokker aircraft factories are situated. The Hague has large-scale food industries (including confections enterprises) and light industry. Artistic wood, glass, and other objects are also made here. The governing boards of many commercial and industrial firms have their seats in The Hague, as do many institutions providing various services. The economically active population in 1969 was distributed as follows: industry and handicrafts, 56,000; services, 107,000 (including 17,000 employed in transport and communications and 62,000 in banking, commerce, and insurance); administration and government service, 58,000 (including 37,000 in government service); and agriculture and fisheries, 2,400. The Hague also has scientific societies, state archives, a library, and the Academy of Fine Arts. Museums include the Mauritshuis (the Royal Museum of Painting), the Municipal Museum (19th and 20th century art), the Postal Museum, the Costume Museum, and the International Press Museum. The Hague is the seat of the International Court of Justice.

The first mention of The Hague in historical sources occurs in 1097. From the end of the 16th century onward The Hague was the meeting place for the States General. At the beginning of the 19th century The Hague acquired the status of a city. Beginning in the second half of the 17th century, numerous international conferences were held here. In 1872 the congress of the First International met in The Hague. From 1940 until May 1945 the city was occupied by the fascist cist German troops. Among international conferences held in The Hague were the Hague Conference of 1922 and the Hague Conference on Reparations of 1929-30.

The grid pattern of wide streets has been modernized and completed with more freely planned new districts (1908-09, architect H. P. Berlage; 1935, architect W. M. Dudok), which extend along the main transport highways; most of these districts were built after World War II. The central part of the city—the government buildings around the Vijver lake—has preserved most of its ancient character. Along the Vijver lie the rectangular complex of the Binnenhof (13th to 18th century; the Gothic-style Ridderzaal was built about 1280) and the classical Mauritshuis building (1633-35, architects, J. van Campen and P. Post). Also located in this area are the Gothic-style St. Jacobskerk (14th century to 16th), the old Renaissance town hall (1564-65), the Huis ten Bosch Palace (1645-47, architect, P. Post; 1734-37, architect, D. Marot), the Nieuwe Kerk (1649-56), and the Royal Library (1734-36, architect, D. Marot; 1761, architect, P. de Swart). Among 20th century buildings are the Palace of Peace (1913), the Municipal Museum (1916-35, architect H. Berlage), the De Volharding office building (1928, architect J. Buÿs), the Dutch Shell building (1938-42, architect J. J. P. Oud), and the American Embassy (1959, architects M. Breuer and A. Elzas).

REFERENCES

Gelder, H. E. van. ’s-Gravenhage in zeven eeuwen, Amsterdam, 1937.
Gelder, H. E. van. De historische schoonheid van ’s-Gravenhage, 3rd ed. Amsterdam, 1946.
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