Ulama

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Ulama

 

(ulema), Muslim theologians and canon lawyers. During the Middle Ages, the ulama presided over Muslim religious institutions, schools, and courts and acted as expounders of Islamic law. They also managed the income derived from the waqfs. Today, the ulama still exercise considerable influence in most countries of the Middle East.

References in periodicals archive ?
His charismatic character as well as the reputation of his family as notable 'ulama descendants is emphasized in the internal networks of SCIRI.
What is important to note here is the way in which how any form of struggle between political organizations might be translated into traditional-patrimonial family rivalry among Shi'i 'ulama.
This can be recognized as an extension of the political activities of Shi'i 'ulama in the anti-British uprisings of 1918 and 1920, or like Muhammad Kashif alGhita who sympathized with the nationalist movement and maintained close relations with Rashid 'Ali al-Gaylani.
It does not mean that the most brilliant 'ulama in hawza is always famous and popular among umma.
The second reaction was from the narrower community of 'ulama al-din, who feared the loss of their traditional position in society.
The second aim, on the other hand, involved regulation and systematization of the intervention of 'ulama in politics, which had been observed in a sporadic and individual way throughout the history of Shi'i marja'iya.
This pattern in the Islamic movement emphasizes the effectiveness of the traditional network of 'ulama or sayyids based on their sacredness, nobility of origin, or salvation of the soul.
Its internal frictions, however, often resulted in it being perceived as traditional rivalry of local notable families of 'ulama.
Names of these three are as follows; Sayyid Muhammad Bahr al'Ulum, high-ranking 'ulama from al-Najaf; Mas'ud al-Barzani, leader of KDP; Hasan al-Naqib, Arab nationalist military officer from Samarra'.
I, several Islamic political organizations were established by 'ulama, such as Hizb al-Nahda al-Islamiya (1916), al-Jam'iya al-Wataniya al-Islamiya (1918).