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type,

for printingprinting,
means of producing reproductions of written material or images in multiple copies. There are four traditional types of printing: relief printing (with which this article is mainly concerned), intaglio, lithography, and screen process printing.
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, was invented in China (c.1040), using woodblocks. Related devices, such as seals and stamps for making impressions in clay, had been used in ancient times in Babylon and elsewhere. Movable type made from metal molds was developed in Korea as early as the beginning of the 13th cent. However, there is no evidence that the European invention of movable type attributed to Johann GutenbergGutenberg, Johann
, c.1397–1468, German inventor and printer, long credited with the invention of a method of printing from movable type, including the use of metal molds and alloys, a special press, and oil-based inks: a method that, with refinements and increased
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 was influenced by Eastern developments. The first dated printing from movable type in Europe is a papal indulgence, printed at Mainz in 1454. The first dated book printed from movable type was a psalter printed by FustFust or Faust, Johann
, d. 1466?, printer at Mainz. Johann Gutenberg borrowed substantial sums of money from Fust, a goldsmith, lawyer, and money lender.
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 and Schöffer on the Gutenberg press at Mainz in 1457. Gutenberg's Mazarin BibleMazarin Bible
, considered to be the first important work printed by Gutenberg and the earliest book printed from movable types. The Bible, printed at Mainz, probably required several years of work; it was completed not later than 1455 and printed in an edition of about 180
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, completed at Mainz not later than 1455, is believed to be the first book printed in Europe from movable type. The type used in these beginnings of European printing was of the kind known as black letter or Gothic, represented now by such types as Old English and German. The forms of the letters were derived from popular handwriting styles.

Other styles suggested the letter forms of roman and italic type. Roman type was used by several printers before Nicolas JensonJenson or Janson, Nicolas
, d. c.1480, Venetian printer, b. France. Jenson studied printing with Gutenberg at Mainz for three years.
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 so improved it as to ensure its triumph as the standard type. Italic type was first used by Aldus ManutiusAldus Manutius
or Aldo Manuzio
, 1450–1515, Venetian printer. He was educated as a humanistic scholar and became tutor to several of the great ducal families. One of them, the Pio family, provided him with money to establish a printery in Venice.
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, who also introduced small capitals. Roman type is of two basic sorts, old style and modern. The modern type emphasizes the contrast between light and heavy lines and has conspicuous level serifs; the old style type keeps its lines of nearly the same weight and has inconspicuous serifs, some of them sloping. Qualities of old style and modern types are often combined. Into the mid-20th cent. type characters were usually made by pouring metal into previously cut matrices and, less frequently, by processes using plastics and other synthetic materials. Computerization of type design and photomechanical printing techniques have almost entirely replaced metal type. By the early years of the 21st cent. the computer had made the design of new styles of type, once an arduous task, a relatively simple process. Tens of thousands of type fonts are now in existence, and new styles of type are created on a nearly daily basis.

Famous designers of types include, in addition to those named above, Geofroy ToryTory, Geofroy
, c.1480–1533, Parisian printer, typographer, and author, b. Bourges. After study in Italy, he won distinction as a professor in Paris and became editor to the printer Henri Estienne.
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, Claude GaramondGaramond, Claude
, 1480–1561, Parisian designer and maker of printing types. According to tradition he learned his art from Geofroy Tory. Types designed by Garamond were used in the printeries of the Estienne family, Colines, Plantin, and Bodoni, and types used by the
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, Robert GranjonGranjon, Robert
, fl. 1545–88, French designer of type and printer. He began his work in Paris and afterward worked in Lyons, Antwerp, and Rome. The types that he designed and made included roman, italic, Greek, Hebrew, and Syriac.
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, Christopher van DyckDyck, Christopher van
, 1601–c.1672, German designer and maker of printing type, who worked in Amsterdam. Types that he designed were used by the Elzevir firm. His roman typeface was of the kind known in England and America as "old style" and on the Continent as "Elzevir.
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, William CaslonCaslon, William
, 1692–1766, English type designer, b. Worcestershire. He worked first in London as an engraver of gunlocks, then set up his own foundry in 1716. The merits of Caslon's types were rediscovered after a brief eclipse in the popularity of John Baskerville's
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, John BaskervilleBaskerville, John
, 1706–75, English designer of type and printer. He and Caslon were the two great type designers of the 18th cent. in England. He began his work as printer and publisher in 1757 and in 1758 became printer to the Univ. of Cambridge.
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, Giambattista BodoniBodoni, Giambattista
, 1740–1813, Italian printer b. Piedmont. He was the son of a printer and worked for a time at the press of the Vatican. Under the patronage of the duke of Parma, he produced stately quartos and folios with impressive title pages and luxurious margins.
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, François Ambroise DidotDidot, François
, 1689–1757, Parisian printer. The son of a printer, Denis Didot, he was the first of the family to win fame in his craft. His son,

François Ambroise Didot,
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, William MorrisMorris, William,
1834–96, English poet, artist, craftsman, designer, social reformer, and printer. He has long been considered one of the great Victorians and has been called the greatest English designer of the 19th cent.
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, Bruce RogersRogers, Bruce,
1870–1957, American typographer and book designer, b. Lafayette, Ind. As printing adviser to Cambridge Univ. Press, Harvard Univ. Press, and to commercial houses specializing in limited editions and fine printing, he earned a reputation as his era's leading
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, F. W. GoudyGoudy, Frederic William
, 1865–1947, American type designer, b. Bloomington, Ill. Goudy is celebrated as one of the finest and most prolific type designers in history. In 1905, Goudy established his first press, which he moved to New York City the next year.
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, and the contemporary American Matthew Carter.

See also typographytypography
, the art of printing from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition.
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.

Bibliography

See F. W. Goudy, Alphabet and Elements of Lettering (repr. 1922); H. Lehmann-Haupt, One Hundred Books about Bookmaking (1949); J. R. Biggs, An Approach to Type (2d ed. 1962); S. Carter, Twentieth-century Type Designers (1987); A. S. Lawson with D. Agner, Printing Types (rev. and expanded ed. 1990); W. P. Jaspert et al., Encyclopaedia of Type Faces (5th ed. 2001); D. B. Updike, Printing Types (4th ed. 2001); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); M. Bierut, Seventy-nine Essays on Design (2007); J. Tholenaar and A. W. Purvis, Type: A Visual History of Typefaces and Graphic Styles (2009). See also bibliography under typographytypography
, the art of printing from movable type. The term typographer is today virtually synonymous with a master printer skilled in the techniques of type and paper stock selection, ornamentation, and composition.
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.

type

any abstract or conceptual class or category which may or may not be seen as capable of straightforward empirical reference. Compare IDEAL TYPE. See also TYPOLOGY, TYPIFICATION.

Type

 

a rectangular piece of metal, plastic, or wood with a raised image of a letter or character on one side. The raised or recessed image serves to reproduce letters and characters by printing, in which the face is covered with ink and an impression is made on paper. Metal type is the most common; it is cast from printing alloy. The parts of a piece of type (see Figure 1) are the body (a), beard (b), and face (c); the dimensions of the type are defined by the point size (d), width (e), and height to paper (f). The last dimension is constant for all kinds of type.

Figure 1


Type

 

an element with which a particular taxon is always associated. The type of a species or an intraspecific taxon is usually a single specimen of a plant or animal or, less commonly, several specimens viewed together on one herbarium sheet or in one laboratory preparation. Sometimes a drawing serves as a type. The type of the plant species Companula aldanensis is a specimen collected by the Russian botanist V. S. Korzhevin on Aug. 6, 1928, on the bank of the Aldan River in Siberia; the specimen is preserved in Leningrad at the herbarium of the V. L. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

The term “type” is also used as a designation for a lower taxonomic category that is selected as a standard of reference for a higher category. The type of a genus or of a taxon between a genus or species (for example, a subgenus or section) is a particular species. For example, the species Campanula latifolia is the type of the genus Campanula. The type of family or of a taxon between a family and a genus (for example, a tribe or subfamily) is a particular genus. For example, the type genus of the family Campanulaceae is Campanula, a genus established by C. Linnaeus. Taxa higher than a family do not have types.

M. E. KIRPICHNIKOV

type

[′tīp]
(graphic arts)
The relief or plane characters used to generate printed characters of various styles and sizes.
(systematics)
A specimen on which a species or subspecies is based.

type

i. In relation to the licensing of aviation personnel, it means all aircraft of the same basic design, including all modifications, except those resulting in a significant change in handling or flight characteristics.
ii. In relation to the certification of aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers, it means those aircraft, aircraft engines, or propellers that are similar in design.

type

1. Biology
a. the taxonomic group the characteristics of which are used for defining the next highest group, for example Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) is the type species of the rat genus Rattus
b. (as modifier): a type genus
2. Logic a class of expressions or of the entities they represent that can all enter into the same syntactic relations. The theory of types was advanced by Bertrand Russell to avoid the liar paradox, Russell's paradox, etc.
3. Philosophy a universal. If a sentence always has the same meaning whenever it is used, the meaning is said to be a property of the sentence-type
4. Chiefly Christian theol a figure, episode, or symbolic factor resembling some future reality in such a way as to foreshadow or prefigure it

type

(theory, programming)
(Or "data type") A set of values from which a variable, constant, function, or other expression may take its value. A type is a classification of data that tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use it. For example, the process and result of adding two variables differs greatly according to whether they are integers, floating point numbers, or strings.

Types supported by most programming languages include integers (usually limited to some range so they will fit in one word of storage), Booleans, floating point numbers, and characters. Strings are also common, and are represented as lists of characters in some languages.

If s and t are types, then so is s -> t, the type of functions from s to t; that is, give them a term of type s, functions of type s -> t will return a term of type t.

Some types are primitive - built-in to the language, with no visible internal structure - e.g. Boolean; others are composite - constructed from one or more other types (of either kind) - e.g. lists, arrays, structures, unions. Object-oriented programming extends this with classes which encapsulate both the structure of a type and the operations that can be performed on it.

Some languages provide strong typing, others allow implicit type conversion and/or explicit type conversion.

type

(1) A category of data. See data type.

(2) To press the keys on a keyboard.

Try Typing on These Keys!
This "portable" typewriter was created by George Blickensderfer in 1893. (Equipment courtesy of Dorothy Hearn.)


(3) An internal DOS/Windows command that displays the contents of text and batch files as in the following examples:
type abc.txt          entire contents

  type abc.txt | more   per screenful


The vertical bar is a "pipe" and MORE is a "filter." A pipe passes output from one function to another. Thus, you are piping the output of the Type command to the MORE filter, which pauses after receiving a screenful of data and waits for a key to be pressed. See filters and pipes.

Weird Characters on Screen?

The Type command is for viewing .TXT, .BAT and .CMD files that are regular text. If you use Type with an .EXE, .SYS or other binary file, a strange combination of characters will be displayed along with beeps and erratic motion (see below). Binary files coincidentally trigger sounds and screen functions because their formats randomly match the first 32 characters in the ASCII table, which are control codes (see ASCII chart). See binary file.

Using Type on a Binary File
If the Type command is used to display a non-text file, these are the results.