process technology

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process technology

With regard to digital integrated circuits, process technology refers to the particular method used to make silicon chips. The driving force behind the manufacture of integrated circuits is miniaturization, and process technology boils down to the size of the finished transistor and other components. The smaller the transistors, the more transistors in the same area, the faster they switch, the less energy they require and the cooler the chip runs (given equal numbers of transistors).

Measured in Nanometers
The size of the features (the elements that make up the structures on a chip) used to be measured in micrometers. A 3 µm process technology, also called a "technology node" and "process node," referred to a silicon chip with features three micrometers in size. Today, features are measured in nanometers. A 45 nm process technology refers to features 45 nm or 0.45 µm in size.

Elements Measured
Historically, the process technology referred to the length of the silicon channel between the source and drain terminals in field effect transistors (see FET). The sizes of other features are generally derived as a ratio of the channel length, where some may be larger than the channel size and some smaller. For example, in a 90 nm process, the length of the channel may be 90 nm, but the width of the gate terminal may be only 50 nm.

An Example of Progress
Consider that the process technology of the first 486 chip in 1989 was one micron (1,000 nanometers). By 2003, the state-of-the-art decreased to 90 nm ("90 nano"). In 15 years, feature sizes were reduced by slightly less than one millionth of a meter. What may seem like a minuscule, microscopic change to the casual observer took thousands of man years and billions of dollars worth of research and development. Note the huge variance in semiconductor feature sizes starting in the 1950s (see chart below).

Chips Are Nanotechnology
Intel introduced 45 nm processors in 2008. To understand how tiny 45 nanometers is, it would take two thousand 45 nm objects laid side-by-side to equal the thickness of one human hair.

In 2010, 32 nm chips were introduced, and feature sizes as low as 11 nm are expected in the future. For some time, chips have been in the realm of nanotechnology, which refers to elements 100 nanometers and smaller. See half-node.

Half a Micron Is Huge
In a span of five years, the feature size on these AMD chips was reduced from .8 to .35 microns. Half a micron may seem insignificant, but not in the microminiature world of semiconductor manufacturing. As features get smaller, the chip runs cooler and faster. (Image courtesy of Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.)


Semiconductor Feature Sizes(approximate for all vendors)       Nanometers  MicrometersYear     (nm)        (µm)

 1957   120,000      120.0
 1963    30,000       30.0
 1971    10,000       10.0
 1974     6,000        6.0
 1976     3,000        3.0
 1982     1,500        1.5
 1985     1,300        1.3
 1989     1,000        1.0
 1993       600        0.6
 1996       350        0.35
 1998       250        0.25
 1999       180        0.18
 2001       130        0.13
 2003        90        0.09
 2005        65        0.065
 2008        45        0.045
 2010        32        0.032
 2012        22        0.022
 2014        16        0.016
 2014        14        0.014
 2016**      11        0.011
 2018**       6        0.006
 2020**       4        0.004

 ** estimated
References in periodicals archive ?
Researchers have created fibers that are a miniscule 130 nanometers wide.
Below 130 nanometers there is cross-coupling all over the chip, and with CoolTime we can readily determine which ones affect performance and target them for corrective action.
Each particle, which the researchers call a nanoshell, measures about 130 nanometers in diameter.
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Today, Intel's Pentium 4 microprocessor contains 55 million transistors, each averaging about 130 nanometers on a side.
Intel's newest chip, the Pentium 4, holds roughly 42 million transistors, with each transistor spanning roughly 130 nanometers (nm).
has production capabilities down to the 130 nanometers (nm) node, making it ideal for Nantero's development work.
The Encounter-based flow has, to date, produced 150 high-end production ASICs at or below 130 nanometers with all first silicon success, out of which about 30 designs were developed at 90 nanometers.
Retiming in Encounter RTL Compiler enabled us to implement our design at 130 nanometers while meeting our timing and area goals.
Below 130 nanometers, precision clock design is critical to control hold time and skew variation over process, and across the entire design simultaneously," said Kun-Cheng Wu, Director of Design Development at Faraday Technology.
We have successfully completed more than 10 tapeouts at 130 nanometers using the Encounter platform, and are currently using it for 90-nanometer tapeouts," said Jim Lai, chief operating officer and president at Global UniChip.
Design planning, placement and analysis are not just a good thing for logic designers to have as feature sizes shrink below 130 nanometers, they are crucial to design closure," said Michael Naum, president and CTO of Silicon Dimensions.