July Revolution

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July Revolution,

revolt in France in July, 1830, against the government of King Charles XCharles X,
1757–1836, king of France (1824–30); brother of King Louis XVI and of King Louis XVIII, whom he succeeded. As comte d'Artois he headed the reactionary faction at the court of Louis XVI.
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. The attempt of the ultraroyalists under Charles to return to the ancien régime provoked the opposition of the middle classes, who wanted more voice in the government. The banker Jacques LaffitteLaffitte, Jacques
, 1767–1844, French banker and politician. He rose from poverty to become one of the wealthiest and most influential men in France. He was director (1809) and later governor (1814–19) of the Bank of France.
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 was typical of the bourgeois who supported liberal journalists, such as Adolphe ThiersThiers, Adolphe
, 1797–1877, French statesman, journalist, and historian.

After studying law at Aix-en-Provence, Thiers went (1821) to Paris and joined the group of writers that attacked the reactionary government of King Charles X.
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, in opposing the government. Liberal opposition reached its peak when Charles called on the reactionary and unpopular Jules Armand de PolignacPolignac, Jules Armand, prince de
, 1780–1847, French statesman. Belonging to one of the oldest families of France, he emigrated with them during the French Revolution. Under Napoleon I he was imprisoned (1804–14) for his part in the conspiracy of Georges Cadoudal.
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 to form a new ministry (Aug., 1829). When the chamber of deputies registered its disapproval, Charles dissolved the chamber. New elections (July, 1830) returned an even stronger opposition majority. Charles and Polignac responded with the July Ordinances, which established rigid press control, dissolved the new chamber, and reduced the electorate. Insurrection developed, and street barricades and fighting cleared Paris of royal troops. Charles X was forced to flee and abdicated in favor of his grandson, Henri, conte de ChambordChambord, Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné, comte de
, 1820–83, Bourbon claimant to the French throne, posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, duc de Berry. His original title was duke of Bordeaux.
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. Henri was set aside, and, although there was a movement for a republic, the duc d'Orléans was proclaimed (July 31) king of the French as Louis PhilippeLouis Philippe
, 1773–1850, king of the French (1830–48), known before his accession as Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans. The son of Philippe Égalité (see Orléans, Louis Philippe Joseph, duc d'), he joined the army of the French Revolution,
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. His reign was known as the July Monarchy.

Bibliography

See study by D. H. Pinkney (1972).

References in periodicals archive ?
Feminist admirers subsequently depicted her as a free woman escaping an unhappy marriage, but Rogers pleads for a political reading of Luce's motivations, speculating about exposure to utopian socialist ideas in the wake of the July 1830 Revolution.
The book's basic thesis is that the French invented European socialism in the 1830 revolution, and that it was not the product of 19th century unionism--working people fighting for specific decent labor conditions--but of the 19th century equivalent of hippies, who did not like the idea of having to work at all.
Under his radical tutelage, she came to view the 1830 Revolution as a first attempt to right the wrongs of a rank-and-wealth-driven society, and for all her life, she subscribed to his dictum: "From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs.
23) At the moment he wrote this letter, Monfalcon was also having to digest another major disappointment: he had been thwarted in his hope to be named editor of the Precurseur, the liberal newspaper whose heroic defiance of Charles X's attempted constitutional coup had made it the symbol of the 1830 Revolution in Lyon.
The events concern the double murder of two particularly-abusive ex-nobles in the aftermath of the 1830 Revolution in France.