4D printing

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4D printing

Using a 3D printer to create objects that change their shape when removed from the printer. Invented at MIT in 2013, the purpose is to make things self-assemble when exposed to air, water or heat due to the chemical interaction of the materials used in their manufacture. A more dramatic goal is have the objects oscillate in some fashion on their own. The 4th dimension moniker refers to the self-transformation. See 3D printing.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the near future, 4-D printing will revolutionize the business landscape by printing objects ranging from human organs to parts used in the aerospace and automotive sectors.
New analysis from Frost & Sullivan, Advances in 4-D Printing, expects the aerospace, defense, automotive and healthcare industries to be the first to adopt 4-D printing technology after its commercialization.
4-D printing, an extension of three-dimensional printing, is superior to conventional manufacturing techniques in terms of performance, efficiency and quality, and can create new products with increased capabilities, noted Technical Insights Research Analyst Jithendranath Rabindranath.
Much work remains for market participants, as 4-D printing technology is in an early stage of development.
As with any new technology, the initial implementation cost of 4-D printing is an adoption hurdle.
After a few years of mass commercialization, the cost of employing 4-D printing technology will decrease, prompting several companies across a wide range of industries to integrate this technology into their manufacturing systems, stated Rabindranath.
New analysis from Frost & Sullivan, Advances in 4-D Printing , expects the aerospace, defense, automotive and healthcare industries to be the first to adopt 4-D printing technology after its commercialization.
Advances in 4-D Printing , a part of the Technical Insights ( http://www.
Another technology the Army has its eye on is 4-D printing, in which the configuration or internal properties of a 3-D printed part changes over time in response to environmental factors such as being exposed to water, light or extreme temperatures.
The service in 2013 awarded $855,000 in grant funding to three scientists from Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, the University of Illinois and the University of Pittsburgh Swanson School of Engineering to develop 4-D printing materials, according to a news release from the University of Pittsburgh.
Ralph Nuzzo, a chemistry and materials science professor from the University of Illinois, said the 4-D printing could one day create "fabric that responds to light by changing its color, and to temperature by altering its permeability, and even to an external force by hardening its structure.