ACE inhibitor

(redirected from ACE inhibitors)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.

ACE inhibitor

(ā'sē'ē`, ās) or

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

(ăn'jēōtĕn`sĭn), drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
..... Click the link for more information.
), to treat congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarctioninfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
..... Click the link for more information.
). ACE inhibitors block production of an enzyme that helps convert the protein angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2, a protein that makes blood vessels constrict and promotes retention of fluid, raising blood pressure. Thus ACE inhibitors act to widen the blood vessels and make it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. captopril (Capoten), ramipril (Altace), and enalapril (Vasotec) are commonly used ACE inhibitors. Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan (Cozaar) and valsartan (Diovan), reduce hypertension by displacing angiotensin 2 from receptors on the surface of cells. ARBs are used as alternatives to the less expensive ACE inhibitors because they have fewer side effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
The study that evaluated type 2 diabetes (194 patients) assessed patients with hypertension who used other antihypertensives to achieve normal blood pressure targets before ACE inhibitor initiation, a potential limitation.
He also discussed treatment strategies in nephro pathology and said that do not use ACE Inhibitors and ARBs together.
13) The ACE inhibitor should be discontinued, and the patient should be started on a different class of antihypertensive medication.
ACE inhibitors also prevent the breakdown of the enzyme bradykinin.
And the brain power of those patients newly prescribed ACE inhibitors actually improved over the six month period, compared with those already taking them, and those not taking them at all.
Of note, the same magnitude of improvement in femoral neck bone mineral density was seen after just 5 years of ACE inhibitor therapy In other words, no further divergence in bone mineral density occurred during years 5-10.
If you are taking an ACE inhibitor and are bothered by a cough, ask your doctor to evaluate whether the medication may be the cause.
In a study by Tom, Dendorfer, De Vries, Saxena, and Danser (2002), the mechanism by which ACE inhibitors potentiate bradykinin is investigated, which substantiates the claim that ACE inhibitors contribute to an accumulation of bradykinin in plasma exchanges, and therefore, contribute to hypotension in patients.
A 2004 retrospective cohort study evaluating risk factors for adverse drug events associated with ACE inhibitors found factors such as hyperkalemia and renal impairment to be reasons for discontinuation of the medication.
In analyzing 61 studies, researchers found that ACE inhibitors such as captropril (Capoten) are slightly more likely than ARBs such as losartan (Cozaar) to cause a harmless but persistent dry cough, but in terms of effectiveness, the drugs worked equally well.
But in animal studies, the ACE inhibitors that cross the blood-brain barrier have been shown to halt cognitive decline at doses below what would be used to control blood pressure.
Centrally acting ACE inhibitors (for example, captopril, Enalapril, and lisinopril) are able to cross the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain, where they may help reduce inflammation, according to the authors of a new study.