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(from Mongolian), livestock-breeding workers in the Mongolian People’s Republic and areas with settlements of Mongols in the Chinese People’s Republic; in a broader sense, the workers in general, the people. In feudal Mongolia the arats were a class of livestock-breeding peasant serfs, attached to the land (pastures), which was owned by feudal lords or sovereign princes who exploited their labor. On the eve of the 1921 revolution the arats, who constituted 92.2 percent of the population, owned only 50.5 percent of the total livestock in the country. The class struggle of the arats against the oppressors assumed all kinds of forms, beginning with an unwarranted nomadism and ending with massive uprisings. The arats were the prime driving force in the Mongolian people’s revolution of 1921. In the Mongolian People’s Republic the arat mode of life underwent a radical change. The arats are a free class, building socialism with the newly formed working class and the working intelligentsia of the Mongolian People’s Republic. The modern arats are no longer small producers but have been incorporated into agricultural cooperatives. The arats’ transition to a settled way of life has been accomplished. According to information available at the end of 1966, arat membership in the agricultural unions constituted 47 percent of the total population of the Mongolian People’s Republic.

In the Chinese People’s Republic the arats form an integral part of the toiling masses in the autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Sinkiang, and parts of Tsinghai Province.

The peasants in the Tuva ASSR are also called arats.


Vladimirtsov, B. Ia. Obshchestvennyi stroi mongolov. Leningrad, 1934.
Natsokdorzhi, Sh. lz istorii aratskogo dvizheniia vo Vneshnei Mongola. Moscow, 1958.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chen visited last year with an ARATS delegation to hammer out trade agreements.
Zheng, vice chairman of ARATS, will attend the preparatory meeting.
China's official Xinhua News Agency later Monday quoted ARATS vice chairman Zheng Lizhong as saying the agenda of the second formal meeting between the current leaders of the two intermediary organizations will include cross-straits shipping, air transport, postal service and food safety.
A semi-government agency, ARATS conducts negotiations and direct contact with Taiwan for China.
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The delegation is part of the effort on the part ARATS to augment Chinese investments in Taiwan, which Chen admitted is far from satisfactory.
The violence came as Beijing gears up for historic talks in Taipei, with ARATS Chairman Chen Yunlin slated to lead a big delegation to the island.
Those negotiations culminated in the inking of two pacts on aviation and tourism links between the two historic foes, while SEF and its Chinese counterpart, the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Strait, or ARATS, committed to further talks in Taipei on cargo links and other economic issues.
Complaining of soreness and choking back tears, Zhang Mingqing, vice chairman of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, or ARATS, cut short by two days his Taiwan visit, casting a pall over ARATS Chairman Chen's expected arrival.
His departure cut short by two days an academic visit that experts say was a litmus test for how his boss, ARATS chairman Chen Yunlin, would be received in an upcoming visit to the island for formal talks.
The committee will handle primarily the technical aspects of cross-Strait issues, rather than the policy aspect which is still in the direct jurisdiction of SEF and ARATS.
ARATS invited SEF Chairman Chiang Pin-kun and Vice Chairman and Secretary General Kao Koong-lian to lead an SEF delegation to visit Beijing from June 11 to 14 for talks on weekend charter flights between the mainland and Taiwan and travel by mainland tourists to the self-governing island, Xinhua said.