ARPAnet


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ARPANET

[′är·pə‚net] Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

ARPANET

ARPAnet

(Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) The research network funded by the U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The software was developed by Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), and Honeywell 516 minicomputers were the first hardware used as packet switches. ARPAnet was launched in 1969 at four sites including two University of California campuses, the Stanford Research Institute and the University of Utah.

In late 1972, the ARPAnet was demonstrated at the International Conference on Computers in Washington, DC. This was the first public demonstration of packet switching.

TCP/IP Was Added
Over the next decade, ARPAnet spawned other networks, and in 1983 with more than 300 computers connected, its protocols were changed to TCP/IP. In that same year, the unclassified military MILNET network was split off from ARPAnet.

It Became the Internet
As TCP/IP and gateway technologies matured, more disparate networks were connected, and the ARPAnet became known as "the Internet" and "the Net." Starting in 1987, the National Science Foundation began developing a high-speed backbone between its supercomputer centers. Intermediate networks of regional ARPAnet sites were formed to hook into the backbone, and commercial as well as non-profit network service providers were formed to handle the operations. Over time, other federal agencies and organizations formed backbones that linked in.

The Big Shift
In 1995, commercial Internet service providers took control of the major backbones, and the Internet grew exponentially. See Internet.


Humble Beginnings
Scrawled on this paper in 1969 were the first four nodes of the ARPANET. Little did they realize these four nodes would grow to millions. (Image courtesy of The Computer History Museum, www.computerhistory.org)
References in periodicals archive ?
Now ARPANET is being dismantled because the Defense Department is not interested in running a "free" network for civilian scientists.
Email was adapted for ARPANET by Ray Tomlinson of BBN in 1972.
Since that historic ARPANET event 40 years ago, SRI has continued to play a significant role in the evolution of computing, the Internet, and communications, including participating in the first use of the new internetworking protocol across three separate networks in 1977 and managing the Network Information Center, or NIC, for more than two decades.
Scientists built ARPANET with the intention of creating a network that would still be able to function efficiently if part of the network was damaged.
Was it the 1970s when e-mail arrived and ARPANET shifted from military experiment to public resource?
Long-time practitioner Day uses his skills as a published historian to bridge the gap from the original ARPANET, for which he was involved in designing the protocols, to today's Internet.
Patterns in Network Architecture: A Return to Fundamentals, by John Day, bridges the gap between the original ARPANET and today's Internet, while bringing detailed processes together through historical and theoretical patterns.
While networks for sharing data already existed, such as the US ARPANET, his proposals for using hypertext to make information more accessible gave birth to the world wide web as we know it today.