ARPAnet


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ARPANET

[′är·pə‚net] Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

ARPANET

ARPAnet

(Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) The research network funded by the U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The software was developed by Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), and Honeywell 516 minicomputers were the first hardware used as packet switches. ARPAnet was launched in 1969 at four sites including two University of California campuses, the Stanford Research Institute and the University of Utah.

In late 1972, the ARPAnet was demonstrated at the International Conference on Computers in Washington, DC. This was the first public demonstration of packet switching.

TCP/IP Was Added
Over the next decade, ARPAnet spawned other networks, and in 1983 with more than 300 computers connected, its protocols were changed to TCP/IP. In that same year, the unclassified military MILNET network was split off from ARPAnet.

It Became the Internet
As TCP/IP and gateway technologies matured, more disparate networks were connected, and the ARPAnet became known as "the Internet" and "the Net." Starting in 1987, the National Science Foundation began developing a high-speed backbone between its supercomputer centers. Intermediate networks of regional ARPAnet sites were formed to hook into the backbone, and commercial as well as non-profit network service providers were formed to handle the operations. Over time, other federal agencies and organizations formed backbones that linked in.

The Big Shift
In 1995, commercial Internet service providers took control of the major backbones, and the Internet grew exponentially. See Internet.


Humble Beginnings
Scrawled on this paper in 1969 were the first four nodes of the ARPANET. Little did they realize these four nodes would grow to millions. (Image courtesy of The Computer History Museum, www.computerhistory.org)
References in periodicals archive ?
Since that historic ARPANET event 40 years ago, SRI has continued to play a significant role in the evolution of computing, the Internet, and communications, including participating in the first use of the new internetworking protocol across three separate networks in 1977 and managing the Network Information Center, or NIC, for more than two decades.
to institutions that could provide networking services to university scientists who did not have access to ARPANET.
The original ARPANET grew into the Internet based on the idea that there would be multiple independent networks of rather arbitrary design.
ARPANET was a very cloistered realm, exclusively the province of scientists and graduate students.
Stephen Wolff, a past recipient of the Postel Award, said, "CSNET was a critical link in the transition from the research-oriented ARPANET to today's global Internet.
lt;strong>Late 1971: </strong>The first emails are sent over the ARPANET network, by Ray Tomlinson - who would also propose the @ sign as being a crucial part of email addresses.
Licklider outlined his vision of computers as communication and collaboration-support devices in another widely read article [17], and laid the groundwork for the funding of the ARPANET by his successors at IPTO, Ivan Sutherland, Robert Taylor and Larry Roberts.
This network forms the backbone of NSFNET, which also has links with ARPANET and several NASA laboratories.
Known for pioneering the development of the ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet, BBN continues to create advances in Internet and networking technologies through its work on ad hoc networking, the semantic web, quantum communications, and advanced protocols.
Distributed systems are intrinsically tricky, as previously illustrated by the 1980 ARPANET collapse [3] and the timing synchronization glitch before the first shuttle launch [1].
The first ``node'' was fired up at UCLA in 1969 and four other computers were linked up by the end of that year, forming what the military called ARPANET.