Cardiomyopathy

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cardiomyopathy

[¦kärd·ē·ō‚mī′äp·ə·thē]
(medicine)

Cardiomyopathy

 

(myocardosis), a term often applied to a broad group of heart diseases; specifically, noninflammatory lesions of the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting from a disturbance in myocardial metabolism. Among the causes of cardiomyopathy are nutritional disorders (alimentary dystrophy and avitaminosis, for example); protein metabolism disorders in hepatic or renal insufficiency and podagra; disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus) and electrolyte metabolism; and endocrine disorders such as those associated with thyrotoxicosis and with hypoxia in impairment of coronary circulation, anemia, and mountain sickness. Myocardosis may also be caused by overstraining the myocardium and by exogenous poisons, such as carbon monoxide and alcohol.

In many cases the patient has no specific symptoms in the early stages; however, there may be shortness of breath and disagreeable sensations in the heart. Cardiomyopathy is manifested by dull, distant heart sounds, electrocardiographic changes, systolic murmur, extrasystole, and, more rarely, other types of arrhythmia. Severe cardiomyopathy weakens the heart contractions and may cause cardiac insufficiency. The changes associated with cardiomyopathy are usually reversible and disappear with the elimination of the underlying disease.

The cure includes treatment of the underlying disease and administration of agents that improve metabolic processes in the myocardium.

REFERENCE

Kedrov, A. A. Bolezni myshtsy serdtsa. Leningrad, 1963.

N. R. PALEEV

References in periodicals archive ?
In the SCD literature, ARVC accounts for 11-22% of cases in young athletes.
Symptoms of ARVC include palpitations, light-headedness, fainting, breathlessness, abnormal heat rhythms, swollen ankles or legs, swelling in the abdomen, risk of sudden death on exertion.
The differentiation between ARVC and RVOT VT is very important because the prognosis of patients with RVOT VT is excellent whereas the risk of SCD is about 1% per year in ARVC with associated tachycardia.
ARVC is a disease of the desmosome, so skin manifestations--including palmar keratosis--are a clue that it may be present.
It is well recognized that ARVC is a disease with highly variable clinical manifestations, ranging from those that are asymptomatic and slowly progressive to more severe disease presenting with sudden unheralded death in young individuals.
After doctors diagnosed him, they urged his family to have tests - and found mum Natalie, 39, also had ARVC.
Fatty tissue in the left ventricle and ventricular septum is seen relatively frequently in ARVC, and fat in the ventricular septum is another useful finding for diagnosis of ARVC with CT (1).
Doctors at the Royal Infirmary discovered he was suffering from ARVC, which means his heart was beating too fast to pump blood through his body.
Electrocardiographic features of arrhythmic syncope * Non-sustained VT * Bifascicular block (LBBB or RBBB combined with left anterior or left posterior fascicular block) or other intraventricular conduction delay with QRS >120 ms * Sinus bradycardia (<50 bpm or sinoatrial block in absence of negative chronotropic medications or physical training) * Pre-excited QRS complex * Prolonged or shortened QT interval * RBBB pattern with ST elevation in V1--V3 (Brugada pattern) * Negative T waves in the right praecordial leads, epsilon waves, and ventricular late potentials suggestive of ARVC ARVC = arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy; LBBB = left bundle branch block; RBBB = right bundle branch block; VT = ventricular tachycardia.