Abd al Malik
, an award-winning French rap star, is suing Ben Arfa for defamation after the Newcastle United player accused him of indoctrinating him into the Sufism branch of Islam.
Abd al Malik, an award-winning French rap star, is suing Ben Arfa for defamation, after the Newcastle United player accused him of indoctrinating him into the Sufism branch of Islam.
Two years later, the footballer once more streams out similarly false and defaming attacks, this time, at Abd al Malik and Fabien Coste.
Abd al Malik is a follower of a traditional Sufi branch of Islam and Hatem Ben Arfa's proposals are defamatory.
An enemy of the central government who is at least as dangerous is Abd Al Malik
Al Huthi, leader of a rebel movement in the north of the country, which has been battling the government on and off since 2004.
Clearly, the Umayyads, beginning with Abd Al Malik, were passionate builders.
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, built by Abd Al Malik ibn Marwan and completed in 692AD, is the earliest surviving monument of Islamic art.
Zaid rebelled in 737 AD against the Umayyad Caliph Hisham Abd Al Malik
and a group paid allegiance to him.
Feeling the Berber resistance had been crushed, Caliph Abd Al Malik
turned his attention to dealing with his Byzantine enemy.
Since the site was chosen for Muslim worship by the second Caliph Omar in 638 AD and built by the ninth Caliph Abd al Malik about 50 years later, almost every Muslim ruler of Jerusalem has repaired or renovated the shrine.
The Dome of the Rock one visits today is almost identical to the constructed by the Caliph Abd al Malik in 691, despite destruction to the dome and walls by earthquakes, and the conversion of the mosque into a church during the presence of the Crusaders.