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Abd al-Aziz(äb'däl-äzēz`) or
Abdülaziz(Turk. äbdül`äzēz`), 1830–76, Ottoman sultan (1861–76), brother and successor of Abd al-MajidAbd al-Majid
, 1823–61, Ottoman sultan (1839–61), son and successor of Mahmud II to the throne of the Ottoman Empire. The rebellion of Muhammad Ali was checked by the intervention (1840–41) of England, Russia, and Austria.
..... Click the link for more information. . The economic and political reforms enacted under his rule could not outpace the decline of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). In 1875 his bankrupt government repudiated the interest on the huge loans raised in Western Europe; this act led to foreign control over part of the Ottoman revenues. RomaniaRomania
, republic (2005 est. pop. 22,330,000), 91,699 sq mi (237,500 sq km), SE Europe. It borders on Hungary in the northwest, on Serbia in the southwest, on Bulgaria in the south, on the Black Sea in the southeast, on Moldova in the northeast, and on
..... Click the link for more information. , SerbiaSerbia
, Serbian Srbija , officially Republic of Serbia, republic (1995 est. pop. 10,394,000), 34,116 sq mi (88,361 sq km), W central Balkan Peninsula; formerly the chief constituent republic of Yugoslavia and of its short-lived successor, Serbia and Montenegro.
..... Click the link for more information. , and EgyptEgypt
, Arab. Misr, biblical Mizraim, officially Arab Republic of Egypt, republic (2005 est. pop. 77,506,000), 386,659 sq mi (1,001,449 sq km), NE Africa and SW Asia.
..... Click the link for more information. gained virtual independence, and revolts broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bulgaria. Political decay was paralleled, however, by cultural rebirth. Many important schools were founded, and newspapers helped to educate the Turks politically. In 1876, Midhat PashaMidhat Pasha
, 1822–83, Turkish politician. As governor of Bulgaria he succeeded within the few years of his tenure (1864–69) in raising the country from misery to relative prosperity. Schools, roads, and granaries were built from funds obtained by local taxation.
..... Click the link for more information. , foremost among the liberals, overthrew Abd al-Aziz, who died a few days later, probably by suicide. He was succeeded by his nephew, Murad VMurad V,
1840–1904, Ottoman sultan (1876), son of Abd al-Majid. He came to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) when his uncle, Abd al-Aziz, was deposed, but he was soon declared insane and was succeeded by his brother, Abd al-Hamid II.
..... Click the link for more information. .