This liberalizing trend within Islam was reversed, interestingly, by one of the followers of Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad
Rashid Rida, editor of the Egyptian journal, al-Manar.
Many Islamic modernists, such as Jamal Ad-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad
Iqbal, Ali Shariati and Mehdi Barzargan, among others, are models of careful analysis.
The profusion of books, articles, Quranic exegesis, and treatises produced by such harbingers of Islamic modernism as Sayyid Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh, Muhammad
Farid Wajdi, Qasim Amin and Ali Abd al-Raziq on historically significant issues not only generated a storm of controversy in Egypt but also affected the general course of the country's intellectual development.