abrasive

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abrasive,

material used to grind, smooth, cut, or polish another substance. Natural abrasives include sandsand,
rock material occurring in the form of loose, rounded or angular grains, varying in size from .06 mm to 2 mm in diameter, the particles being smaller than those of gravel and larger than those of silt or clay.
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, pumicepumice
, volcanic glass formed by the solidification of lava that is permeated with gas bubbles. Usually found at the surface of a lava flow, it is colorless or light gray and has the general appearance of a rock froth.
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, corundumcorundum
, mineral, aluminum oxide, Al2O3. The clear varieties are used as gems and the opaque as abrasive materials. Corundum occurs in crystals of the hexagonal system and in masses. It is transparent to opaque and has a vitreous to adamantine luster.
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, and ground quartzquartz,
one of the commonest of all rock-forming minerals and one of the most important constituents of the earth's crust. Chemically, it is silicon dioxide, SiO2.
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. Carborundum (silicon carbidesilicon carbide,
chemical compound, SiC, that forms extremely hard, dark, iridescent crystals that are insoluble in water and other common solvents. Widely used as an abrasive, it is marketed under such familiar trade names as Carborundum and Crystolon.
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) and aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 (aluminum oxide) are important synthetically produced abrasives. The hardest abrasives are natural or synthetic diamondsdiamond,
mineral, one of two crystalline forms of the element carbon (see allotropy), the hardest natural substance known, used as a gem and in industry. Properties
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, used in the form of dust or minuscule stones.

abrasive

[ə′brās·əv]
(geology)
A small, hard, sharp-cornered rock fragment, used by natural agents in abrading rock material or land surfaces. Also known as abrasive ground.
(materials)
A material used, usually as a grit sieved by a specified mesh but also as a solid shape or as a paste or slurry or air suspension, for grinding, honing, lapping, superfinishing, polishing, pressure blasting, or barrel tumbling.
A material sintered or formed into a solid mass such as a hone or a wheel disk, cone, or burr for grinding or polishing other materials.
Having qualities conducive to or derived from abrasion. Also known as abradant.

Abrasive

A material of extreme hardness that is used to shape other materials by a grinding or abrading action. Abrasive materials may be used either as loose grains, as grinding wheels, or as coatings on cloth or paper. They may be formed into ceramic cutting tools that are used for machining metal in the same way that ordinary machine tools are used. Because of their superior hardness and refractory properties, they have advantages in speed of operation, depth of cut, and smoothness of finish.

Abrasive products are used for cleaning and machining all types of metal, for grinding and polishing glass, for grinding logs to paper pulp, for cutting metals, glass, and cement, and for manufacturing many miscellaneous products such as brake linings and nonslip floor tile.

The important natural abrasives are diamond, corundum, emery, garnet, feldspar, calcined clay, lime, chalk, and silica, SiO2, in its many forms—sandstone, sand, flint, and diatomite.

The synthetic abrasive materials are silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, titanium carbide, and boron carbide. The synthesis of diamond puts this material in the category of manufactured abrasives.

abrasive

A hard substance for removing material by grinding, lapping, honing, and polishing. Common abrasives include silicon carbide, boron carbide, diamond, emery, garnet, quartz, tripoli, pumice, diatomite, metal shot, grit, and various sands; usually adhered to paper or cloth.
References in periodicals archive ?
Titanium carbide (TiC) is silver-gray and offers high resistance to abrasive wear and cratering because of its increased hardness.
Tungsten alloys for barrel linings and screw hardfacings offer excellent protection against abrasive wear.
The most obvious abrasive wear occurs in the high shear areas of the mixing chamber, specifically where there is an obvious loss of metal on the leading edge of the rotor wing for a tangential mixer and on the minor and major diameters of the rotors of the intermeshing designs.
While there are many types of wear, tool engineers should be most concerned with adhesive and mild abrasive wear, which combine to cause billions of dollars in tool replacement costs every year.
Mold surface treatment helps with abrasive wear from the processing of the materials, provides corrosion resistance from chemical attacks by the various chemical ingredients and by-products from the curing process and provides a smooth, pore-free surface for part quality and reduced mold fouling.
Nanostructured coatings are up to four times more abrasive wear resistant and exhibit more than double the bond strength compared to conventional coatings.
Potassium hydroxide will dissolve in the oils and fats faster and stay dissolved longer than the sodium hydroxide, and at first would sound like the better choice of catalyst, but potassium hydroxide also creates problems with the final bio-diesel because it can create an excessive ash content in the burned fuel, and can lead to engine deposits and high abrasive wear on the pistons and cylinders.
Fortunately for most injection molds, seals are not required to withstand extremely high water pressures (usually only 45 to 60 psi), frictional heat, or abrasive wear.
Using high pressure air, it achieves higher solids-to-air ratios and minimizes degradation and abrasive wear by conveying slow moving, tightly packed material, according to the literature.
These steels provide an excellent combination of high resistance to abrasive wear and high-bend fracture strength, which make them the right choice for tools processing today's highly engineered resins.
Extensive in-vitro testing was conducted internally and in conjunction with independent laboratories to measure metrics such as resistance to abrasive wear, subluxation wear, oxidation, fatigue, and crack propagation.