IP can enable an abstract type
of redundancy that is just not possible with any other technology.
In a class, we can specify types: build-in types, abstract type
(sorts), and compound types (x for Cartesian Product, -set for Set, * for List, [?
Consider a host-provided interface for an abstract type
of file handles, fh, that includes operations to create and use them (Figure 1).
Because Ada is so supportive of abstract type
definitions, it was relatively easy to produce an Ada language binding.
In figure 2 we apply this kind of step to abstract type
If the member functions needed for the abstract type
are nonvirtual member functions, introducing an abstract superclass is not possible either, since it would modify the behavior.
Sor example, in the Trellis library, Collection is an abstract type
that specifies how a type that acts as a collection must behave.
Java developers can also easily ask complex questions about their code, such as "Where are subclasses of this abstract type
1] According to the Tate Museum, biomorphic--derived from the Greek words "bios," which means life, and "morphe," which means form--was initially used during the 1930s "to describe the imagery in the more abstract types
of surrealist painting and sculpture" (http://www.
The plot is schematic and the characters--even the principal figure, Santiago the shepherd boy--are abstract types
After responding to this challenge, calling into question the proposition that abstract types
cannot be caused, a second, jurisprudential challenge to intellectual property is considered.
Wonham in this book, however, eschews both of these attitudes, and argues instead that it is an inevitable anxiety rather than a contradictory expedience that leads realists to employ abstract types
of ethnic caricature in their writings.