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a trend in painting formulated in the art academies of the 16th through 19th centuries and founded on dogmatic adherence to the importance of external forms in classical art.

Academism made possible the systemization of artistic education and the strengthening of classical tradition, which were transformed into a system of “eternal” canons and instructions. Considering contemporary reality unworthy of “exalted” art, academism presented instead timeless and nonnational norms of beauty, idealized images, and subjects remote from reality (from ancient mythology, the Bible, and ancient history), which it emphasized by conventionality and abstraction in modeling, color, and drawing and theatricality of composition, gesture, and pose. As the official school accepted by most monarchies and bourgeois states, academism turned its idealistic aesthetics against progressive national realistic art.

Academism arose at the end of the 16th century in Italy. The Bologna school—which formulated rules for the imitation of the art of antiquity and the Renaissance as well as the French academism of the second half of the 17th and 18th centuries (C. Le Brun and others)—mastered a group of the principles and methods of classicism and served as a model for many European and American academies of fine arts. During the 19th century, the leaders of academism—such as A. Canova in Italy, D. Ingres in France, and F. A. Bruni in Russia—insisted on the emasculated tradition of classicism and fought against the romantics, the realists, and the naturalists but accepted some of the outer aspects of their methods, reducing academism to eclectic salon art. Academism declined under the blows of the realists, including the Russian peredvizhniki (members of the Society of Wandering Exhibitions), and bourgeois individualistic opposition; it was retained only in part at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century in a group of countries, for the most part in the renovated forms of neoclassicism. The term “academism” is also understood more broadly to mean any canonization or transformation of the ideals and principles of the art of the past into immutable norms. In this sense one speaks of the academism of several schools of Hellenistic and Roman sculpture, which canonized the heritage of the ancient Greek classics, or of a group of modern artists who have tried to revive the concepts of schools and currents which have become historically outdated.


References in periodicals archive ?
The Dahesh Museum of Art (DMA) is the only institution in America devoted exclusively to collecting and exhibiting 19th- and early-20th-century academic art.
32), he does demonstrate that the Frenchman's reputation (good and bad) did manage to limp along until the last quarter of the century, when there was a revival of critical interest in academic art.
All of these activities reflect the State of Indiana Academic Art Standard 9 for Kindergarten, "Identify and use processes to express ideas, experiences, and stories include: drawing, painting, printmaking, ceramics, sculpture, fiber, mixed media and new media such as computer, photography, film, etc.
In Plain Paintings: Making Sense of American Folk Art, he dissected nineteenth-century "folk art" portraits, pointing out that rather than exemplifying a unique style or aesthetic, they were bad copies of academic art that satisfied a middle class desperate for the social status owning a portrait--any portrait--could provide.
According to Wu's definition, "experimental art" displays new forms and materials, attempts to reinvent the language of artistic expression, and positions itself in opposition to official or academic art.
Dr Meirion Evans, consultant epidemiologist: To pursue a second career as an academic art historian; to exhibit (and sell) paintings at the Royal Academy summer exhibition.
Thus, for example, she repeatedly attributes the muscular build of many classical figures in Academic art to the influence of muscular Christianity and other body-conscious movements, but neglects to elaborate upon the curious nineteenth-century fascination with ancient sculpture (which antedates the popularization of physical anthropology), the development of mythography as a subject for Victorian intellectuals, or the revival of interest in Renaissance art and artists (who were among the first to stress anatomy in art training).
Brazil's naive, or primitive, art has been described by one writer as "too folksy to please the academic art crowd and too unassuming to satisfy the avant garde .
Today, the Addison Gallery of American Art, the academic art museum of Phillips Academy, once again welcomes the public after the first renovation and restoration in its history.
As art world leaders and long-time friends, the three galleries bring to New York their respective passions, accompanied by academic art historical research and documentation.
Hall wears his erudition lightly and something of an enfant terrible air of defiant levity characterises many passages of analysis, as though the author were cocking a snook at the gravitas of academic art history.

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