Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

 

the highest scientific institution of the Ukrainian SSR and one of the leading scientific centers in the USSR. Founded in 1919. The presidium and most scientific research institutes are located in Kiev. In 1968 the membership of the academy included 116 academicians and 163 corresponding members.

The system of the academy incorporates nine divisions and 47 scientific research institutes. These include the division of mathematics, mechanics, and cybernetics (scientific research institutes—mathematics, fluid mechanics, cybernetics, mechanics); the division of physics (scientific research institutes—physics, metal physics, semiconductors, electrodynamics, heat transfer physics, the physics and engineering institute in Kharkov, the physics and engineering institute for low temperatures, radio physics and electronics, the physics and engineering institute in Donetsk, theoretical physics); the division of physics and engineering problems in materials science (scientific research institutes—the E. O. Paton Institute of Electric Welding, materials science problems, casting, physics and mechanics, durability problems); the division of earth sciences and space sciences (scientific research institutes—geological sciences, geophysics, geology and geochemistry of fuel minerals, geochemistry and physics of minerals, marine hydrophysics); the division of chemistry and chemical engineering (scientific research institutes—general and inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, chemistry of high-molecular-weight compounds, the L. V. Pisarzhevskii Institute of Physical Chemistry, gas colloidal and water chemistry); the division of general biology (scientific research institutes—botany, zoology, hydrobiology, biology of the southern seas); the division of biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology (scientific research institutes—biochemistry, the A. A. Bogomolets Institute of Physiology, the D. K. Zabolotnyi Institute of Microbiology and Virology, plant physiology); the division of economics, history, philosophy, and law (scientific research institutes—economics, history, archaeology, social sciences, philosophy); the division of literature, language, and art criticism (scientific research institutes—the T. G. Shevchenko Institute of Literature, the A. A. Potebnia Institute of Linguistics, the M. F. Ryl’skii Institute of Art Criticism, folklore, ethnography); and several other scientific research institutions. These include a computer center, observatories, botanical gardens, national forest parks, and branches and divisions of the institutes; the Council on the Study of Productive Forces of the Ukrainian SSR, the Main Editorial Board of the Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia, and a central scientific library (more than 7 million volumes in 1968). An extensive experimental production base is at the academy’s disposal. In addition to Kiev, scientific institutions are located in Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, L’vov, Odessa, Sevastopol’, Poltava, and elsewhere. Coordination of research projects in the natural and social sciences in the Ukraine is supervised by 55 scientific councils.

The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR conducts research in all basic branches of modern science and on problems confronting the national economy of the republic and the country as a whole. The most important research directions are in mathematics (theory of numbers, functional analysis, nonlinear differential equations, mathematical logic, probability theory), cybernetics (theory of digital automata, teaching and self-teaching of machines, problem-solving in the automated design of new computers and computing machinery), nuclear physics (theory of accelerators, theory of deformed nuclei, and others), solid-state physics (physics of the exciton state, electronic theory of metals, theory of polarons), a complex of materials science problems (fundamentals of the design of refractory and ultrahigh-strength materials and compounds, powder metallurgy), radio astronomy, earth sciences, development of the bases of welding processes (development of new high efficiency welding methods, mechanization and automation of welding processes, devising fundamentally new techniques for obtaining high-quality materials by electroslag welding and electron-beam remelting, and others), chemistry (chemistry of free radicals and stable isotopes, catalysis and its industrial applications, chemistry of organophos-phoric compounds, colloidal chemistry), human, animal, and plant physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, economics, and the history, literature, and language of the Ukrainian people.

The academy’s Naukova Dumka Publishing House publishes more than 700 scientific works each year; the total volume is more than 9,000 printer’s sheets. The academy has published Dopovydi Akademii nauk URSR since 1939 and publishes 24 scientific periodicals, including Kibernetika (since 1965), Avtomaticheskaia svarka (since 1948), Poroshkovaia metallurgiia (since 1961), Ukrains’kyi istorychnyi zhurnal (since 1957), Radians’ke pravo (since 1958), and Narodna tvorchist’ ta etnografiia (since 1957).

The academy was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1969. Presidents of the academy have been V. I. Vernadskii (1919–22), V. I. Lipskii (1922–28), D. K. Zabolotnyi (1928–30), A. A. Bogomolets (1930–46), A. V. Palladin (1946–62), and Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR B. E. Paton (since 1962).

REFERENCES

Istoriia Akademii nauk Ukrains’koi RSR, books 1–2. Kiev, 1967.
Paton, B. E. “Akademiia nauk Ukrainskoi SSR.” In Ukrainskaia Sovetskaia Sotsialisticheskaia Respublika. Kiev, 1967.

B. E. PATON

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