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in philosophy, a term for the incidental or immaterial as opposed to the substantial or essential.
It is first encountered in Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Physics; later Porphyry divided accidents into those which are separable—for example, a dream for a man—and those which are inseparable—for example, dark skin pigmentation for a Negro. The concept of accident was developed in scholasticism, which viewed several characteristics of things as “real accidents,” existing on their own without regard for the substances in which they are usually inherent. Descartes, Hobbes, and other 17th-century philosophers rejected the existence of “real accidents”; following this vein, Spinoza replaced the term “accident” with the term “modus,” by which he meant the isolated manifestation of substance. The concept of accident is encountered in Kant, Fichte, and other philosophers of the 18th and 19th centuries and also in formal logic—for example, in J. S. Mill and F. C. S. Schiller.
V. V. SOKOLOV
in civil law, a circumstance leading to the nonfulfillment or improper fulfillment of obligations by a debtor, without the debtor or the creditor subject to blame. As a general rule, an accident frees the debtor of liability involving his own assets.
In Soviet law, the responsibility for accidents is acknowledged only under circumstances specified by law. For example, enterprises especially established to store property, such as storage and cold-storage enterprises, are held liable for accidents. The same is true of organizations and citizens whose work or other activity entails risk or danger, such as transport organizations and motor vehicle owners. Air transport organizations are held liable for death, maiming, or other injury to a passenger during takeoff, landing, or flight, as well as during the boarding and deplaning of passengers. This applies not only to accidents but also to the effects of force majeure, as stipulated in Article 101 ofthe Air Code of the USSR.
What does it mean when you dream about an accident?
Accident dreams can represent a variety of different situations, from straightforward fears of being in an actual, physical accident (or memories of such an accident) to a sense that one is headed for a more metaphorical “crack up.” We may be so preoccupied with something that we are not paying attention, or so involved in the rat race that we need to slow down. As extensions of ourselves, vehicles often represent the physical body, so an accident dream may indicate a health problem or anxieties about health. If the general tone of the dream is positive (even if violent), accidents may symbolize something or some part of life of which one is letting go.
i. A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of (a) being in the aircraft; (b) direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts that have become detached; or (c) direct exposure to jet blast, except when the injuries are the result of natural causes, self-inflicted, inflicted by other persons, or to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally available to the passengers and crew. For statistical uniformity only, an injury resulting in death within 30 days of the accident is classified as fatal.
ii. The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that (a) adversely affects its structural strength, performance, or flight and (b) would normally require major repairs or replacement of the affected component, except for engine failure or damage limited to the engine, its cowlings, or accessories; propellers; wing tips; antennae; tires; brakes; fairings; small dents; or puncture holes in the aircraft skin.
iii. The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible. An aircraft is considered missing when the official search has been terminated and the wreckage has not been located.