Achaemenids

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Achaemenids

(ăk'əmĕn`ĭdz), dynasty of ancient Persia. They were descended presumably from one Achaemenes, a minor ruler in a mountainous district of SW Iran. His successors, when ElamElam
, ancient country of Asia, N of the Persian Gulf and E of the Tigris, now in W Iran. A civilization seems to have been established there very early, probably in the late 4th millennium B.C. The capital was Susa, and the country is sometimes called Susiana.
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 declined, spread their power westward. Cyrus the GreatCyrus the Great
, d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus, he was the son of an Iranian noble, the elder Cambyses, and a Median princess, daughter of Astyages.
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 established the Persian rule by his conquest of AstyagesAstyages
, fl. 6th cent. B.C., king of the Medes (584–c.550 B.C.), son and successor of Cyaxares. His rule was harsh, and he was unpopular. His daughter is alleged to have married the elder Cambyses and was said to be the mother of Cyrus the Great, who rebelled against
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 of MediaMedia
, ancient country of W Asia whose actual boundaries cannot be defined, occupying generally what is now W Iran and S Azerbaijan. It extended from the Caspian Sea to the Zagros Mts.
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. The Achaemenids (c.550–330 B.C.) were important for their development of government administration, the appearance of literature written in cuneiformcuneiform
[Lat.,=wedge-shaped], system of writing developed before the last centuries of the 4th millennium B.C. in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valley, probably by the Sumerians (see Sumer).
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, and the spread of ZoroastrianismZoroastrianism
, religion founded by Zoroaster, but with many later accretions. Scriptures

Zoroastrianism's scriptures are the Avesta or the Zend Avesta [Pahlavi avesta=law, zend=commentary].
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; during this period there was also a great flourishing of Persian art and architecturePersian art and architecture,
works of art and structures produced in the region of Asia traditionally known as Persia and now called Iran. Bounded by fierce mountains and deserts, the high plateau of Iran has seen the flow of many migrations and the development of many
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. The Achaemenid rulers after Cyrus were Cambyses II, the impostor Smerdis, Darius I, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, Sogdianus, Darius II, Artaxerxes II (opposed by Cyrus the Younger), Artaxerxes III, Arses, and Darius III. The dynasty ended when Darius III died in his flight from Alexander the Great.

Achaemenids

 

a dynasty of rulers of the ancient Persian state (558–330 B.C.) founded by Achaemenes, leader of a union of Persian tribes. Cyrus II (the Great), a descendant of Achaemenes who ruled in Parsa and Anshan (North Elam) from 558 to 530 B.C., founded a huge empire uniting most of the countries of the Near and Middle East. In 550–549, Medea was seized; the next three years saw the conquest of countries that had formed part of the Medean state. Lydia and the Greek cities of Asia Minor were seized in 546; much of Middle Asia was conquered between 545 and 539, Babylonia in 539, and Egypt in 525; and Thracia, Macedonia, northwest India, and the islands of the Aegean Sea were conquered between 519 and 512.

The rulers after Cyrus II were Cambyses II (530–522), Darius I (522–486), Xerxes I (486–465), Artaxerxes I (465–424), Xerxes II (424), Sogdianus (424–423), Darius II (423–404), Artaxerxes II (404–358), Artaxerxes III (358–338), Arses (338–336), and Darius III (336–330). The capitals of the Achaemenid state were Persepolis, Babylon, Susa, and Ecbatan.

The Achaemenid Empire, an oriental despotocracy, was governed by a complex bureaucratic system formed during the reign of Darius I. The state was divided into 20 military administrative districts (satrapies), each headed by special administrators (satraps); the satraps were obliged to collect from the populace and pay to the Persian king heavy taxes (in money and in kind), which were especially ruinous in areas where the populace had to resort to moneylenders in order to pay them.

In its ethnic composition and social structure, the Achaemenid Empire was heterogeneous. In the cities of Asia Minor, in Babylonia, Phoenicia and Egypt, slave labor was widely used in agriculture and crafts, whereas the backward regions of Thracia, Macedonia, and the nomadic Arab and Scythian tribes were in a stage of disintegration of their tribal structure. The Persian administration preserved the ancient local laws, religions, monetary systems, writing systems, and languages in the conquered countries. The Persians themselves were freed from taxes and forced labor. The Persian kings, their relatives, the satraps, and the nobility had huge estates worked by slave labor.

As the military powers of the Achaemenids weakened, their state began to disintegrate. The Greco-Persian Wars of 500–449 B.C. attested to the decline of the Persian Army. In 330 B.C., under the blows of the army of Alexander of Macedonia, the Achaemenid state ceased to exist.

REFERENCES

D’iakonov, M. M. Ocherk istorii drevnego Irana Moscow, 1961.
Dandamaes, M. A. Iran pri pervykh Akhemenidakh Moscow, 1963.
Struve, V. V. Eliudy po istorii Severnogo Prichernomor’ia, Kavkaza, i Srednei Azii Leningrad, 1968.
Olmstead, A. T. History of the Persian Empire Chicago, [1948].
Huart, C, and L. Delaporte. L’Iran antique, Elam et Perse . . . Paris, 1943.

M. A. DANDAMAEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Caroline Waerzegger's paper, "Babylonians in Susa: The Travels of Babylonian Businessmen to Susa Reconsidered," lays to rest the longstanding Assyriological debate as to whether the location "Shushan," mentioned in dozens of Mesopotamian business texts from the first millennium, refers indeed to the Achaemenid capital city or to another location in Mesopotamia itself.
Her goals in looking at these materials are 1) to ascertain the extent to which the central imperial government allowed the local government to determine its own course, and 2) to investigate whether and how the local governing apparatus influenced the content of the legal material which the Achaemenid rulers finally authorized.
Another historic site faces the same threat as Persepolis and Bisetun: the tomb of Cyrus the Great, the first Achaemenid king and founder of the Persian Empire, located in the city of Pasargad.
It examines and analyzes the historical and archaeological evidence regarding the presence and influence of the Persian Achaemenid dynasty (which ruled between the mid-sixth-century to 330 BC) in the imperially peripheral region of the Black Sea.
During the excavation, which was carried out by a team of Iranian and Italian archaeologists in the ancient city of Parsa on the perimeter of Persepolis, an amazing structure that dates back to the early days of the Achaemenid era was discovered," Alireza Asgari Chaverdi, the Iranian director of the team, said.
The book's five chapters correspond to the "five configurations of primary data that constitute the basis for our historical knowledge of Achaemenid Phoenicia: classical writings, north-west Semitic inscriptions, coinage, material cultural artifacts, and ancient Jewish traditions" (p.
Northwestern India was part of the Achaemenid empire and consequently it was and is often surmised that Achaemenid art influenced the earliest stone monuments in India, the Asokan or partly pre-Asokan pillars, after artisans immigrated from Persia to India after Alexander's conquest.
The Achaemenid artifact was found in Babylon, today's Iraq during excavations in 1879, and has been housed in the British Museum ever since.
The Achaemenid engineers constructed the sewer system under the platform before construction of the citadel.
surveys the adjudicatory procedures found in the records of the Neo-Babylonian period (employing a broad use of the term that includes texts that date to the reign of the Babylonian Kings from Nebuchadnezzar II onwards to Darius II and the earlier Achaemenid emperors).
asks how the Torah became invested with authority, a process which he assumes "certainly" occurred in the Achaemenid period (p.
Three of the saltmen date to the Parthian (247 BCE - 224 CE) and the Sassanid (224 - 651 CE) eras, while all other human remains discovered at the site go back to the Achaemenid Dynasty (550 - 330 BCE).