Inoue and Lewis Tilney (1982) observed the acrosomal reaction
of the sea cucumber sperm (Fig.
Spontaneous acrosomal reaction
in the fresh sperm was not affected by EDTA or Trolox; however, EDTA decreased acrosome loss in the FT sperm.
gigas, fertilization process requires acrosomal reaction
to bind and penetrate the oocyte (Akcha et al.
Supravital staining, hypo-osmotic swelling test and normal acrosomal reaction
analysis tests were also performed for viability, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity, respectively.
As we know, normal fertilizing capacity of sperm depends on normal acrosomal reaction
and normal functions of acrosomal enzymes.
Biomolecular research proves that with the additional of several seminal plasma proteins can improve the fertilization process, cell survival and has a positive role to the process of spermatozoa capacitation and acrosomal reaction
Only capacitated cells can undergo acrosomal reaction
, a vital step that aids the cell to penetrate the ova to achieve fertilization.
Healthy spermatozoa must retain this membrane throughout freeze-thaw process and start acrosomal reaction
in female tract (Therien and Manjunath, 2003).
Anti-sperm antibodies affect sperm function differently as follows: impairment of sperm penetration into cervical mucus, inhibition of sperm capacitation, incomplete acrosomal reaction
, disruption of sperm-egg binding, and disorder in egg fertilization (6).
Intracellular calcium regulation in sperm capacitation and acrosomal reaction
Then spermatozoa adhere to the oocytes zona pellucida to induce the acrosomal reaction
, in which the fusion of the spermatozoal plasma membrane and the outer acrosomal membrane occurs to allow the acrosomal enzymes to be released.
This ability is attributed to the presence of seminal plasma proteins, which are attached to the sperm surface after ejaculation, leading to modulation of the acrosomal reaction
by zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins (THERIEN et al.