Biomolecular research proves that with the additional of several seminal plasma proteins can improve the fertilization process, cell survival and has a positive role to the process of spermatozoa capacitation and acrosomal reaction
Only capacitated cells can undergo acrosomal reaction
, a vital step that aids the cell to penetrate the ova to achieve fertilization.
Anti-sperm antibodies affect sperm function differently as follows: impairment of sperm penetration into cervical mucus, inhibition of sperm capacitation, incomplete acrosomal reaction
, disruption of sperm-egg binding, and disorder in egg fertilization (6).
Intracellular calcium regulation in sperm capacitation and acrosomal reaction
After incubation, sperm swim through the egg jelly coat and become bound to the vitelline envelope within 30 sec, followed by an acrosomal reaction
at 1 min.