Activated Charcoal


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms.

activated charcoal

[′ak·tə‚vād·əd ′char‚kōl]
(materials)

Activated Charcoal

 

or active carbon, obtained from fossil or wood carbon by the removal of resinous substances and the creation of a branching network of pores. With its highly developed surface, activated charcoal adsorbs many different substances. (Hydrocarbons and their derivatives are readily adsorbed; alcohol, ammonia, water, and other polar substances less readily.) Very fine-pored activated charcoal is obtained through thermal decomposition (carbonization without available air) of certain polymers. Pore diameter varies from 10 Å(with specific surface up to 1,000 m2/g) to 1,000 Å (specific surface of about 1 m2/g). Fine-pored activated charcoals adsorb readily, even in the presence of low concentrations and low partial vapor pressures. The phenomenon of capillary condensation is characteristic of large-pored activated charcoals.

Activated charcoals are used in antigas equipment as adsorbents and carriers of catalytic and chemisorption-active additives, in industry for the recovery of valuable organic solvents and for the removal of organic impurities from water, in high-vacuum technology to create sorption pumps, and in medicine for the absorption of harmful substances from the gastrointestinal tract, especially in connection with dyspepsia, meteorism, food poisoning, and poisoning by alkaloids and salts of the heavy metals. (For the latter purpose, activated charcoal is also prepared in the form of “Karbolen” tablets.)

REFERENCES

Dubinin, M. M. Fiziko-khimicheskie osnovy sorbtsionnoi tekhniki, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Metody issledovaniia struktury vysokodispersnykh i poristykh tel, books 1–2. Moscow, 1953–58.
Aref’ev, S. V., and S. P. Maksimov. Zhurnal fizicheskoi khimii, vol. 41, 1967. Page 1565.

V. I. SHIMULIS

activated charcoal, activated carbon

Charcoal obtained by carbonizing organic material, usually in the absence of air; usually in granular or powdered form; highly effective in adsorbing odors in air or in removing colors in solution.
References in periodicals archive ?
With his background in chemistry, when he saw a bottle of activated charcoal he thought it could draw out the toxins that he and Beth now believed were causing her symptoms.
Activated charcoal is contraindicated and prophylactic antibiotics do not alter the outcome.
Besides the higher cost for the specific nutrients, such as boric acid, molibidenic acid, copper sulfate, zinc sulfate, peptone, or activated charcoal, compared to banana or coconut water, the addition of these specific nutrients also requires the use of an analytical scale ([10.
We would like to thank Mr Graham Sheward, Biomedical Technician, Palmerston North Hospital for advice on activated charcoal filters and Mrs Jeanine Willink, Palmerston North Hospital for editorial assistance.
There is no specific treatment for the poisoning, but procedures that are intended to reduce absorption or improve elimination of the toxin present in digestive tract, such as oral administration of activated charcoal, can be efficient in the early stages [8].
Primary decontamination with gastric lavage and activated charcoal should be performed as early as possible.
For patients who do not fit into any of the categories above, oral activated charcoal is the best short-term treatment option, Dr.
Because the bird appeared stable and had likely vomited the plant leaves, treatment with an oral activated charcoal was not done.
My vision was complete as I imagined activated charcoal incorporated into all hunting clothing.
Another objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of activated charcoal on reducing TOCs from the effluent of a DH kiln while drying different charges of air-dried hardwood lumber.
When heated to approximately 800 degrees Celsius, Asia Pulse said the iron-containing hemoglobin "takes on a state similar to that of activated charcoal," with the new catalyst featuring "70 percent of the catalytic activity of platinum.
Blum says that Chaser, which contains activated charcoal that binds impurities, also works.