Participle

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Related to Active participle: Future participle, Passive participle

participle

Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. There are two participle forms: the present participle and the past participle.
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Participle

 

a verb form combining the properties of both verb and adjective and expressing adjectivally an action or state as a property of a person or object, as in pishushchii (“writing”), podniatyi (“raised”), and sgibaemyi (“flexible”). In Russian, the verbal nature of a participle is evidenced by the presence of the categories of voice and aspect and by the retention of patterns of government adjoinment (primykanie); this is seen by comparing dolgo rabotaet v pole (“he works long in the field”) and dolgo rabotaiushchii v pole (“the man working long in the field”). A participle does not form a sentence, however, except in the case of the short forms, and lacks the categories of mood and person. It possesses the category of relative tense, which refers not to the moment of speech, as with a verb, but to the time of the main action as expressed by the conjugated verb of the predicate. A participle resembles an adjective in having the agreement categories of gender, number, and case. Like adjectives, participles have the syntactic function of defining, which may be parenthetic (parenthetic attribute construction). Participles may undergo adjectivization, that is, become adjectives.

Participles are present in all the Indo-European languages and are a special grammatical subclass in other language families, such as Finno-Ugric, Altaic, and Semitic. In contemporary linguistics there is no unanimously held opinion concerning the grammatical nature of the participle.

V. A. VINOGRADOV

References in periodicals archive ?
While takhayyal (along with its verbal noun takhayyul) implies a creative act whose impact is reflexive, yukhayyil along with its active participle verbal noun muhkhayyil (and passive participle mukhayyal) not only does not suggest an agent, but also that that which is being imagined is acting on an object to create it/make it appear.
In Uzbekistan and Afghanistan (5) the situation is slightly complicated by the fact that the active participle has itself become refunctionalized into a person-inflected form in which the historical pronoun objects assume the function of subject.
Both the active participle susuvams- and the middle participle susvana- are used in a resultative sense, which can become stative in the meaning 'having pressed soma (and now keeping it ready)' (Kummel, ibid.
The principal parts upon which all inflected forms of the verb are built are the perfective base (represented by the third masculine singular form of the perfective), the imperative base (represented by the masculine singular form of the imperative), and the imperfective base (represented by the active participle in the absolute state).
In earlier studies (Li 2009 and 2010), I suggested that the active participle in the Aramaic of Daniel functioned as a general atemporal imperfective that was on its way to becoming a present.
What Luxenberg suggested was that the word be read as the plural active participle of h-b-b in the Peal ("to burn"), literally "burning," with "wood" supplied in parenthesis.
and replaced by a new tense based on the active participle.
present ending was originally just the enclitic personal pronoun *-na (< independent *ana), attached to the present active participle.
Weipert begins by describing the primary vocabulary of dahiya: a very popular scheme for denoting disaster (and used for dahiya itself) is the feminine active participle of verbs with the meaning "to happen suddenly, to occur, to do harm," etc.
For example, jr(y) "do" differentiates between a past active participle written jr "who has done" and a present active participle written jrr "who does.
in its active participle yadi, shortened to yad- or just ya-(cf.
He should then note that, unlike the present active participle, the aorist ppl.