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Inflammation of the ear.



inflammation of the external, middle, or internal ear.

Otitis externa affects the skin of the auricle and external auditory meatus and proceeds with the formation of furuncles and eczema, as in other skin inflammations.

Otitis media may be acute or chronic. The acute form results from the penetration of microbes into the middle ear from the nose and nasopharynx in influenza and other infectious diseases. It occurs more often in children than in adults, because children are more susceptible to colds and adenoids. The symptoms are shooting pains in the ear, loss of hearing, elevated temperature, and suppurative discharges from the ear that often appear in the first day and sometimes even the first hours of the disease. In infants, acute otitis media causes restlessness and insomnia. The baby cries, turns its head, holds the affected ear with its hand, and refuses the breast because pain in the ear intensifies with swallowing. The inflammation is treated by tamponade with an alcoholic solution of boric acid or some other antiseptic; in some cases the tympanic membrane is punctured by paracentesis. In most cases, recovery is possible with prompt treatment. However, if the body is debilitated and other conditions are unfavorable, the disease may become chronic, in which case pus is discharged from the ear, and hearing is permanently impaired. Inflammation of the internal ear and meningitis—inflammation of the brain membranes—are possible complications.

Inflammation of the internal ear—labyrinthitis, or otitis interna—arises not only with otitis media but often in children with epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. When labyrinthitis is diffuse, all or almost all the endings of the acoustic nerve in the internal ear die, and complete or almost complete deafness results. With localized labyrinthitis hearing is partly preserved. Labyrinthitis is treated with antibiotics and surgery of the temporal bone.


Temkin, Ia. S. Ostryi otit i ego oslozhneniia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1955.


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Topical ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone superior to oral amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid in acute otitis media with otorrhea through tympanostomy tubes.
Clinical Significance of Antibiotic Resistance in Acute Otitis Media and Implication of Antibiotic Treatment on Carriage and Spread of Resistant Organisms.
Diagnosis, microbial epidemiology, and antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a systematic review.
ELISA IgG concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity following pneumococcal PD conjugate vaccination and relationship to efficacy against acute otitis media.
Acute otitis media remains the leading cause of doctor consultations by children and the most common reason for them to take antibiotics.
A quantitative meta-analysis published in 1998 concluded that consistent evidence of causal relationship between parental smoking in the home and acute otitis media exists (Strachan and Cook 1998).
In fact, standard care for ear infections, known medically as acute otitis media, includes use of pain relief medications such as acetaminophen.
Treatment of acute otitis media with a shortened course of antibiotics: a meta-analysis.
Middle ear infection is called acute otitis media in medical terms and is one of the most common reasons children are brought to physicians' offices.
In the study of 484 children with a middle-ear infection, just over 79 percent of children who received an injection of the antibiotic ceftriaxone in their upper thigh were free of all signs of infection after one month, compared with 80 percent of children who took two oral antibiotics twice a day for 10 days the standard type of treatment for the condition, known as acute otitis media.
Most parents feel helpless or even responsible, watching silently as their children suffer repeated episodes of acute otitis media (severe middle ear infection).
As a result of the infection, the eardrum can become swollen and inflamed, a condition called acute otitis media, which can lead to hearing loss and thus affect a child's learning and language skills.

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