The granularity of the films decreases for sample prepared at sputtering power of 80 W relative to that of 60 W due to the enhanced surface diffusion of the adatoms
at higher sputtering power.
Starting with a surface plated with a few oxygen adatoms, they added water - and the adatoms started to dance.
Remarkably, the adatoms didn't just slide up and down the stripes.
Calculating how much energy it would take for the adatoms to move by themselves, the chemists suspected the adatoms were getting help - most likely from the invisible water molecules.
Suddenly, almost every adatom started to move back and forth along the titanium row.
The chemists determined that water can help the adatom jump a row.
They show that the deposited metal grows preferentially in the  direction and that the deposited Ni adatoms display a sufficiently high mobility at the surface, so that they can diffuse fast to the growth centers.
The second factor is the presence of anions which are codeposited at the electrode surface with copper adatoms.
The anions are known to co-adsorb at the electrode surface with copper adatoms.
This behaviour indicates that copper adatoms are sandwiched between the gold surface and the chloride layer rather than being adsorbed at the top of a monolayer of [Cl.
Similar experiments were also performed to determine the structure of mixed overlayers formed by copper adatoms codeposited with other anions (e.