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(ăd`ənoidz'), common name for the pharyngeal tonsils, spongy masses of lymphoid tissue that occupy the nasopharynx, the space between the back of the nose and the throat. Normally the adenoids, like the palatine tonsils located on either side of the throat, help prevent infection in the surrounding tissues. However, when they become enlarged they interfere with normal breathing and sometimes with hearing. When severely enlarged, adenoids can affect normal dental development, resulting in an alteration of facial expression. Infection of the adenoids is common, the symptoms resembling those of tonsillitis, with which it is frequently associated. Surgical removal of the adenoids is advisable when enlargement and repeated infection interfere with development and health. See respirationrespiration,
process by which an organism exchanges gases with its environment. The term now refers to the overall process by which oxygen is abstracted from air and is transported to the cells for the oxidation of organic molecules while carbon dioxide (CO2
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(or adenoidal growths), enlarged pharyngeal tonsils, which are located in the upper back portion of the throat behind the nasal passage. Adenoids are most frequently observed in children four to eight years of age. The major symptom of adenoids is difficulty in nasal breathing. As a result, the child’s mouth is almost always open, his teeth grow incorrectly, and he is susceptible to chronic head colds. When the adenoids are extremely enlarged, the voice takes on nasal tones, causing m and η to sound like b and d. By blocking the opening of the eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ear to the throat, adenoids cause repeated ear infections that lead to gradual impairment of hearing. Children with adenoids often suffer from insomnia, which results in decreased attention span and poor memory. Sometimes bed-wetting occurs. The treatment of adenoids is surgical. After their removal, nasal breathing does not return immediately, and breathing exercises are beneficial (on the advice of a physician).


References in periodicals archive ?
The researchers concluded that adenotonillectomies for mild throat infections and enlarged tonsils or adenoids have no major clinical benefits.
Christopher Fegan, a consultant haematologist who carried out the survey, said bone marrow examinations are about ten times more common than tonsil and adenoid operations.
Surgery to remove adenoids alone provided even less protection than the combined surgery, Paradise and his colleagues report in the Sept.
If these methods no longer work, and the adenoids are so large they cause difficulty with breathing or eating, doctors usually consider removing them.
SNIFF THEORY: Sniff Theory would explain the role of enlarged adenoids in the causation of secretory otitis media.
I say again because 50 years ago it was accepted medical practice to remove tonsils and adenoids for recurrent sore throats.
However in some cases where adenoids are enlarged or severely infected there is a case for taking these out.
The adenoids and tonsils are made of the same type of tissue, just in different locations.
Operations on tonsils and adenoids were halted in January 2001 after it was discovered there was a minute chance of the transfer of the human form of mad cow disease - CJD - through the use of standard surgical instruments.
The switch to disposable instruments follows Government advice after research identified particles linked to the deadly disease in the tonsils and adenoids of carriers.
When tonsils and adenoids are fighting infections, they get larger.
But throughout the 1950s, radium treatment for such conditions as inflamed adenoids and tonsils, acne, ringworm of the scalp, trouble hearing, and otitis media "was considered good medical practice and effective treatment," notes presidential assistant Christine A.