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Adjuncts are parts of a sentence that are used to elaborate on or modify other words or phrases in a sentence. Along with complements, subjects, verbs, and objects, adjuncts are one of the five main components of the structure of clauses. A distinguishing feature of adjuncts is that their removal from sentences does not alter the grammatical integrity and correctness of the sentence. In other words, adjuncts expand on the word or phrase that they are modifying, but their presence in sentences is not needed for the sentence to stand alone. Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs can all be adjuncts.

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(1) In a number of West European countries and in prerevolutionary Russia (at the Academy of Sciences, some institutions of higher learning, and also at the universities before the introduction of the Statute of 1863), a person doing his qualifying scientific apprenticeship; an assistant to an official, department head, professor, or academician; or a graduate assistant.

(2) In the USSR, a military officer who is preparing for a research or teaching position at a higher military educational institution or an armed forces research institute.