Adler, Viktor

Adler, Viktor

(vĭk`tôr äd`lər), 1852–1918, Austrian socialist politician and journalist, founder and leader of the Austrian Social Democratic party. Initially a German nationalist, he became a Socialist after meeting EngelsEngels, Friedrich
, 1820–95, German socialist; with Karl Marx, one of the founders of modern Communism (see communism). The son of a wealthy Rhenish textile manufacturer, Engels took (1842) a position in a factory near Manchester, England, in which his father had an
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 and BebelBebel, August
, 1840–1913, German Socialist leader. A wood turner by trade, he became a Marxian Socialist under the influence of Wilhelm Liebknecht. At a congress at Eisenach (1869) he was instrumental in founding the German Social Democratic party, which he later
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 in Germany and Switzerland. He published Arbeiter Zeitung, the main socialist organ, and founded the Austrian Social Democratic party, advocating federalism and autonomy for peoples of the Austro-Hungarian empire. He entered parliament in 1905 as a spokesman for universal suffrage. His goal of a unified Austro-Hungarian party was frustrated when Czech Social Democrats broke away. Prominent in the Second International, he also worked for a peaceful settlement of the war at a Socialist conference in 1917. When the Austro-Hungarian empire was collapsing, he advocated AnschlussAnschluss
, German term designating the incorporation of Austria into Germany in the 1930s. Anschluss was first advocated by Austrian Social Democrats. The 1919 peace treaty of St. Germain prohibited Anschluss, to prevent a resurgence of a strong Germany.
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 with Germany. He was named foreign secretary of German Austria, but died on Nov. 11, 1918, one day before the republic was proclaimed.

Adler, Viktor

 

Born June 24, 1852; died Nov. 11, 1918. One of the leaders of the Austrian social democratic movement. Parliamentary deputy in the Reichsrat from 1905.

Adler began his political activity in a pan-German organization. In 1883 he became interested in problems relating to the workers’ movement and moved closer to social democracy. He met twice with F. Engels (1883 and 1889) and corresponded with him (1889–95). He was one of the main authors of the draft program of the Austrian Social Democratic Party which was accepted by the constituent congress in Hainfeld (Dec. 31, 1888–Jan. 1, 1889). Adler made great efforts to overcome the schism in the Austrian social democratic movement and to create a unified party. He played a prominent role in organizing the mass movement of Austrian workers and in the movement for universal suffrage (which triumphed in 1907). But on a number of important party policies, including the national question, Adler strayed to reformist positions. At the start of the imperialist war of 1914–18, his views were close to those of the German social chauvinists; later he began to lean toward centrism and criticize their policy from a Kautskyite standpoint. However, the main target of Adler’s criticism was the left wing of German social democracy (K. Liebknecht and R. Luxemburg). In November 1918, Adler served briefly as the Austrian government’s minister of foreign affairs.

REFERENCES

Lenin, V. I. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 16, pp. 85–86.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., vol. 17, pp. 233–49.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., vol. 19, pp. 184–89.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., vol. 24, pp. 313–15.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., vol. 26, pp. 104–05.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., vol. 26, pp. 335–38.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., vol. 31, pp. 171–72.
Lenin, V. I. Ibid., vol. 49, pp. 70–73.

M. A. POLTAVSKII

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