Isaac Adolphe Crémieux

(redirected from Adolphe Cremieux)

Crémieux, Isaac Adolphe

 

Born Apr. 30, 1796, in Nimes; died Feb. 10, 1880, in Paris. French politician.

Crémieux was a lawyer who rose to prominence because of his role in the political trials of the 1830’s and 1840’s. He belonged to the moderately liberal “dynastic opposition,” which called for wider participation of the industrial bourgeoisie in the state administration. He helped bring down the government of F. P. G. Guizot and raise O. Barrot to the post of premier. After the February Revolution of 1848, Crémieux was a member of the provisional government as minister of justice and helped abolish black slavery in the French colonies. Between 1848 and 1851, Crémieux was a member of the Constituent Assembly and later of the Legislative Assembly.

After Louis Bonaparte’s coup d’etat on Dec. 2, 1851, Crémieux left active political life to return to his legal practice. In 1869 he was elected to the legislature. After the Revolution of Sept. 4, 1870, he became minister of justice in the Government of National Defense. Crémieux supported L. M. Gambetta and urged the continuation of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. From 1871 to 1875 he served as deputy in the National Assembly, where he belonged to the bloc of leftist Republicans. Crémieux was elected senator for life in 1875.

REFERENCE

Posener, S. Adolphe Crémieux (1796–1880), 2 vols. Paris, 1933–34.
References in periodicals archive ?
Crafted by French Minister of Justice Adolphe Cremieux, the decree granted full French citizenship to Jewish residents of French-occupied Algeria, thereby reversing the centuries of second-class status that local Arab leaders had imposed on Algeria's Jews.
The act was called after its leading advocate, Adolphe Cremieux, a prominent French lawyer, a major figure in the French-Jewish community, and the Minister of Justice in the French government of the time.
His polemical protagonists include Jewish politicians like Adolphe Cremieux in France, Gabriel Riesser and Eduard Lasker in Germany, and writers like Joseph Salvador in France and Heinrich Heine in both Germany and France.
Significantly, this small but influential communityhome to the Cremieux clan, whose most notable member, Adolphe Cremieux, served as minister of justice in the Second and Third Republicshad not just stepped off the boat: Many of the Jewish families in NA[R]mes had roots that extended at least as far back as the Avignon Papacy in the 14th century, while yet others were as ancient as the Greco-Roman ruins littering the countryside.
Determined to curb exclusive and chauvinistic nationalism and antisemitism, Western Jewish leaders, especially Adolphe Cremieux and Gerson Bleiehroder, launched a concerted effort to persuade their respective governments to recognize the independence of these new Balkan states only on condition that they grant Jewish emancipation.
The bronze statuette of the Greek orator Demosthenes, standing on the mantle beside the imposing figure of Isaac Adolphe Cremieux, is apt in view of Cremieux's passionate involvement in such political issues of his day as the separation of church and state, free compulsory public education, and general amnesty for those involved in the Paris Commune.