Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet

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Quételet, Lambert Adolphe Jacques

 

Born Feb. 22, 1796, in Ghent; died Feb. 17, 1874, in Brussels. Belgian mathematician, astronomer, meteorologist, and sociologist; one of the creators of scientific statistics.

Quételet became a professor of mathematics and astronomy in Brussels in 1819. In 1820 he became a member of the Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences and in 1834, its secretary. Beginning in 1832 he was director of the astronomical and meteorological observatory founded by him in Brussels. From 1841 to 1874 he was chairman of the Central Belgian Statistical Commission, which had been established on his initiative. He was also the organizer of the first international statistical conference (Brussels, 1853) and chairman of the first international meteorological conference—the Conference on Marine Meteorology (1855). He carried out extensive studies of the climate of Belgium and of the entire globe. He was also the author of Elementary Astronomy, reprinted five times (1826–48).

From the standpoint of positivism, Quételet asserted that social and physical phenomena are subordinate to identical laws and must be studied by the precise methods of mathematical statistics. He set forth the concept of the “average man” (homme moyen), possessing average physical, intellectual, and moral characteristics. Separate individuals, in Quételet’s opinion, are only distorted expressions of the average type. Quételet attempted to discover the laws of its preservation. He proved that certain mass social phenomena (such as birth, death, crime) are subject to definite patterns. K. Marx appraised Quételet’s book On Man and the development of His Faculties, or An Experiment in Social Physics (vols. 1–2, 1835) as an “excellent scientific work” (see K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 8, p. 531), but he noted that Quételet was unable to explain the regularities he himself had established (ibid., vol. 32, pp. 495–96).

Quételet exercised considerable influence on the development of quantitiative methods in social studies.

WORKS

Astronomie élémentaire. Brussels. 1826.
Le Climat de Belgique, vols. 1–2. Brussels, 1849–57.
Météorologie de Belgique, comparée à celle du globe. Brussels, 1867.
In Russian translation:
Sotsial’naia sistema i zakony, eiu upravliaiuschie. St. Petersburg, 1866.

REFERENCES

Raikhesberg, N. M. A. Ketle: Ego zhizn’ i nauchnaia deiatel’nost' St. Petersburg. 1894.
Halbwachs, M. La Théorie de l’homme moyen. Essai sur Quételet et la statistique morale. Paris, 1912.

SH. A. GUMEROV and A. KH. KHRGIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
First named after the Belgian astronomer, mathematician, and statistician Adolphe Quetelet, who demonstrated in 1835 how adult weight normally increases in proportion to height squared, the index provides a measure of body weight, independent of stature, allowing us to compare the weight of short and tall people.
These concepts are part of a statistical and quantitative positivism, injected into scientific thought by Adolphe Quetelet and Francis Galton, which privileges only the observable and quantifiable.
page=3&c=y) had come close to being credited as the Western discoverer of the Perseid meteor shower, but was beaten to it by Belgian statistician Adolphe Quetelet, whose reported a great shower of meteors from August 8th to 15th in a report from the Brussels Observatory in 1836.
THE Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet developed the Body Mass Index between 1830 and 1850.
The BMI was developed in the early 19th century by the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet who used the formula BMI= kg/m2 to aid his pioneering research on population statistics.