adrenaline

(redirected from Adrenalin)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

adrenaline

(ədrĕn`əlĭn, –lēn): see epinephrineepinephrine
, hormone important to the body's metabolism, also known as adrenaline. Epinephrine, a catecholamine, together with norepinephrine, is secreted principally by the medulla of the adrenal gland.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Adrenaline

 

(also epinephrine), a hormone of the medullary layer of the adrenal glands which plays an important part in the vital activity of animals and man. Adrenaline is a pyrocatechol derivative, l-methylaminoethanolpyro-catechol, with a molecular weight of 183.2. It is white, crystalline, and optically active. Soluble in hot water, acids, and bases, it is unstable and readily forms various transformation products. Adrenaline was isolated in 1901 and synthesized in 1905. It is formed from the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine in the chromaffinic (easily stained) granules of the adrenal glands, from where it is secreted into the bloodstream. The precursor of adrenaline in the organism is noradrenaline, a transmitter (mediator) of nerve impulses in the sympathetic nervous system.

Upon entering the blood, the adrenaline raises the oxygen consumption of organs and tissues and participates in the mobilization of glycogen, the cleavage of which leads to an increase of the sugar level in the blood (hyperglycemia). Adrenaline stimulates protein, carbohydrate, fat, and mineral metabolism; raises arterial blood pressure (primarily by constricting the small peripheral blood vessels); increases heart and respiration rates and the force of cardiac contractions; slows intestinal peristalsis; and so forth. Adrenaline content of the blood rises during emotional stress, increased muscular work, choking, chilling, and lowering of the sugar level in the blood (hypoglycemia). A number of diseases of the internal organs, the nervous system, the endocrine glands, and of other parts of the body are accompanied by an increase or decrease of the adrenaline content in the organism, which can complicate the course of the disease.

Adrenaline for therapeutic purposes is obtained from the adrenal glands of animals and also synthetically. An adrenaline hydrochloride solution is administered subcutaneously during drops in blood pressure and in cases of bronchial asthma and other allergic diseases, in local anesthesia, and for exsanguinating wounds during surgery. Sometimes it is used locally to stop bleeding. Adrenaline is contraindicated in cases of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and severe organic heart diseases.

REFERENCES

Adrenalin i noradrenalin. [Lectures of the conference held Dec. 1–3, 1962.] Moscow, 1964.
Matlina, E. Sh., and V. V. Men’shikov. Klinicheskaia biokhimiia katekholaminov. Moscow, 1967.

G. N. KASSIL’

adrenaline

[ə′dren·əl·ən]
(biochemistry)
References in periodicals archive ?
The Cloud Adrenalin pay-as-you-grow model allows providers to dynamically control spending in response to the elastic requirements for content, subscribers and levels of service offering.
Any organisation with more than 50 employees going up to thousands can benefit from tools like Adrenalin HRMS, as it is designed to bring in efficiency through innovative features for employees and Human Resources (HR) professionals; making it a strategic tool to improve productivity and morale within organisations.
The Oman government hopes to attract over $12 billion in foreign investment over the next couple of decades and the potential market for tools like the Adrenalin HRMS would be around 5-10% of overall annual software consumption and planned budgetary allocations.
SeaChange's Adrenalin software has been selected by 38 video service providers who serve tens of millions of subscribers worldwide.
SeaChange Cloud Adrenalin empowers mid-sized and smaller television service providers to deliver advanced multi-screen offers that incorporate blended entertainment with personalized content, social recommendations, social logins and single-sign on capabilities, as well as dynamic packaging and distribution.
SeaChange CTO Steven Davi commented, "We are very pleased to continue expansion of Adrenalin globally by adding two more major U.
Content (including stories, photos, and videos) is managed by Adrenalin CMS, an advanced content management system fed directly from the publisher using XML/RSS feeds.
Adrenalin includes Business Applications such as an offer manager to execute multi-screen promotions; Content Management (publishing, asset management, session and resource management for on-demand and broadcast to all screens); web-based Management & Monitoring; and Advanced Client Publishers (supporting third-party search, recommendation and t-commerce applications).
The Adrenalin Rush is an "adventure race," a new style of sport which puts multiple adventure sports -- mountain biking, sea kayaking, climbing, hiking and navigation and even horse-riding -- back to back into a race format.
Adrenalin Replica+ News Reader: A uniquely branded news reader application for the iPad that delivers an exact digital recreation of a publisher's print title.
At night, when adrenalin is low, histamine soars, adding to the tendency of airways to narrow.
Adrenalin brings over 50 years of combined experience in sports specific design and is arguably the leader in this niche of professional sports.