Adrianople Treaty of 1829

Adrianople Treaty of 1829

 

concluded the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–29. Signed Sept. 2 (14), 1829 in Adrianople (now Edirne, Turkey) by A. F. Orlov and F. P. Palen for Russia and Mehmet Sadikefendi and Abdul Kadir-bey for Turkey.

By the Treaty of Adrianople, Russia gained the mouth and islands of the Danube River, the whole Caucasian coast of the Black Sea from the mouth of the Kuban River to the northern border of Adzharia, and also the fortresses of Akhalakak and Akhali with adjoining regions. Turkey acknowledged Russia’s annexation of Georgia, Imeretia,Min-grelia, and Guria, and also the Erivan and Nakhchivan khanates, which Iran had ceded by the Treaty of Turkmanchai of 1828. The right of Russian subjects to trade freely throughout Turkish territory was confirmed; Turkey gave Russian and foreign trading vessels the right to pass freely through the Bosporus and Dardanelles. Russian subjects on Turkish soil were immune from the jurisdiction of Turkish authorities. Turkey was obligated to pay Russia an indemnity of 1.5 million Dutch coins. Turkey granted the autonomy of the Danubian principalities Moldavia and Wallachia, which Russia undertook to guarantee. In effect they were freed of Turkish authority completely and had only a yearly tribute to pay. The treaty also confirmed Turkey’s obligation by the Akkerman Treaty of 1826 to observe the autonomy of Serbia.

The Treaty of Adrianople was a great victory for Russian diplomacy. It created favorable conditions for the development of Black Sea trade and completed Russia’s annexation of the principal Transcaucasian territories. Russia had strengthened its political influence in the Balkans by the treaty and preferred to keep Turkey as a weak neighbor rather than divide its possessions with Russia’s strong rivals—England, France, and Austria. The Treaty of Adrianople aided and accelerated the process of the liberation of Moldavia, Wallachia, Greece, and Serbia from the yoke of the Ottoman Empire. The basic principle of the treaty, which set a new course for the resolution of the Eastern Question, was further developed in subsequent Russo-Turkish agreements of the 1830’s.

REFERENCES

Fadeev, A. V. Rossiia i Vostochnyi krizis 20–kh godov XIX v. Moscow, 1958. Chapter 5.
Istoriia SSSR s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei, vol. 4, Moscow, 1967. Chapter 10.

S. B. OKUN

Mentioned in ?