Adygei


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Adygei

 

(also known as Lower Circassian, or Kiakh), the language of the Adygeians. It belongs to the Abkhazo-Adyg group of Caucasian (Iberio-Caucasian) languages. It is spoken in the Adygei Autonomous Oblast and in the Lazarevskii and Tuapse raions of the Krasnodar Krai of the RSFSR. Adygei is spoken by about 87,000 people (1959). The language has four dialects: Abadzekh, Bzhedukh, Temirgoi, and Shapsug. Literary Adygei was based on and is being developed from the Temirgoi dialect.

The phonetics of Adygei is distinguished by an abundance of consonants (as many as 66 in the dialects), but there are only two vowels—short e and y —in the primary roots. The long vowels e, i, a, o, and u are formed by syllable contraction. In the definite declension the noun declines through four cases—direct, indirect, instrumental, and translative—and through two cases, rarely three, in the indefinite declension. The Adygei verb is rich in such forms as person, number, tense, mood, and voice. A multipersonal conjugation occurs when two or several personal prefixes or markers of the subject or of the direct and indirect objects are incorporated simultaneously into the conjugated form of the verb.

Multiple predicates incorporating prefixes of person, location, direction, personal relation, and sometimes noun root typify the Adygei language. The sentence structure varies depending on whether the predicate is transitive or intransitive (the subject is accordingly in the indirect or direct case; the predicate is intransitive, with an indirect object). The relative attribute stands before the word modified, and the qualitative attribute after the word modified. The usual sentence order is subject, direct object, remaining terms, and predicate.

The vocabulary of the modern Adygei language exhibits primary roots of the open syllable type. The majority of Adygei words are formed by combining these groups. After the October Revolution a script based on the Arabic alphabet was formed; this was replaced by a Latin script in 1927 and by a Russian script in 1938.

REFERENCES

Iakovlev, N., and D. Ashkhamaf. Grammatika adygeiskogo literaturnogo iazyka. Moscow-Leningrad, 1941.
Rogava, G. B. K voprosu o strukture imennykh osnov kategoriiakh grammatich klassov v adygeiskikh (cherkesskikh) iazykakh. Tbilisi, 1956. (Includes bibliography.)
Russko-Adygeiskii slovar’. Moscow, 1960.
References in periodicals archive ?
TELE2 Russia provides GSM mobile telecom services in 17 regions: Saint-Petersburg and Leningrad region, as well as in Arkhangelsk, Murmansk, Novgorod, Republic of Komi, Smolensk, Kursk, Voronezh, Belgorod, Lipetsk, Nizhny Novgorod, Rostov regions, Krasnodar Territory and Republic of Adygei, Republic of Udmurtia, Chelyabinsk, Kemerovo, Omsk regions.
Tenders are invited for Right to enter into an Agreement for construction, installation and commissioning works on the project of the branch of PJSC "Kubanenergo" Adygei electrical networks: "Construction of the transformer substation 10 / 0.
31) After noting that the initial plan to pacify the western Caucasus entailed resettlement within the empire or in Ottoman lands, Jersild states: "Many regime officials and other Russians in the Caucasus and throughout Russia quite simply believed that the Adygei [Circassians] and the mountaineers in general did not belong in the empire.
Tenders are invited for Right to sign an energy service contract to provide services aimed at energy conservation and energy efficiency use of energy resources (reduction of energy losses during transmission in electrical networks) in the branch of PJSC "Kubanenergo" Adygei electrical networks " 03/08/2015