In terms of complexity, segments can be classified into three types: simple segments (consonants and vowels), complex segments such as affricates
5) The other two additional initials are chuang [Chinese Text Omitted], the voiced retroflex sibilant affricate
tsh- discussed above, and niang [Chinese Text Omitted], which I reconstruct as retroflex nr-, which must have merged in some dialects with dental n- represented by initial ni [Chinese Text Omitted] but which was still distinct in some others (Pulleyblank 1984: 69-70).
Consider now the additional data in (15), which consist of the prefix Wonderly transcribes as N- plus a stem beginning with a stop or affricate
(see also ).
According to Lloyd (1988: 328-35) the letter c had originally represented a dental affricate
On the other hand, the lower accuracy for the affricate
class also reinforces the important interaction between acoustic features and anatomical-physiological features of the human ear for the phonemic identification.
s/ [right arrow] /[theta]/ Second [right arrow] thicken Initial /se/ understood as /[theta]i/ Affricates
/t[integrale]/ postalveolar affricate
[right arrow] velar plosive /k/ Chino [right arrow] quino /t[integral]/ [right arrow] /t/ postalveolar affricate
[right arrow]plosive Cheese: tease Consonant clusters Initial cluster /gr/, /tr/ (Cluster with /r/) Gracia [right arrow] glacia Traje [right arrow] taje Initial cluster /pl/ Play [right arrow] pay [right arrow] reduction /gl/ Glass [right arrow] rush [right arrow]reduction Lash [right arrow] reduction Middle cluster /tr/ tr[?
Although there were more boys than girls in the study sample, the girls had better quality of articulation of all groups of examined sounds of Serbian language (vowels, plosives, nasals, laterals, affricates
and fricatives) although the difference between the boys and girls was not statistically significant (p>0.
Spirants include sibilants /s/ and /s/ along with affricates
Given that the realization of alveolo-palatal affricate
following palatal glide is a complex phenomenon, it is possible that there is evidence of the interaction between processes, such as the tendency to the occlusive realization of the variable in the stressed syllable, different behavior depending on word classes (tendency to affricates
in verbs and occlusives in names), and also the effect of the diminutive (marked by nasal palatal or nasalized palatal glide).
Some of the phonemes that have been resisted in the past are the alveolar trill and affricate
[r] and [dz] respectively.
Also the Birsk, Kaltasy and Krasnoufimsk dialects of MariE preserve the two affricates
distinct: PMari *c is reflected as c in these dialects.
Since stops and affricates
are labelled in the database as pairs of semi-phonemes that consist of occlusions and explosions in the case of stops and of occlusions and frictions in the case of affricates
, the total number of different consonants is therefore 36.