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those who supported French rule in Spain during the country’s occupation by the troops of Napoleon I and collaborated with the occupation forces. The afrancesados were motley in composition, ranging from opponents of Spanish absolutism, who hoped for the introduction of progressive reforms, to office seekers, who expected good jobs and material gains. The popular masses regarded the afrancesados with hostility, and there were instances when afrancesados were murdered by mobs. The rights of the afrancesados were severely limited first by the Cádiz Cortes (1810–13) and then by Ferdinand VII, who returned from French captivity in 1814. Gradually, decrees against the afrancesados were rarely enforced, however, and in 1820 amnesty was granted.