African music

African music,

the music of the indigenous peoples of Africa. Sub-Saharan African music has as its distinguishing feature a rhythmic complexity common to no other region. Polyrhythmic counterpoint, wherein two or more locally independent attack patterns are superimposed, is realized by handclaps, xylophones, rattles, and a variety of tuned and nontuned drums. The remarkable aspect of African polyrhythm is the discernible coherence of the resultant rhythmic pattern. Pitch polyphony exists in the form of parallel intervals (generally thirds, fourths, and fifths), overlapping choral antiphony and solo-choral response, and occasional simultaneous independent melodies. In addition to voice, many wind and string instruments perform melodic functions. Common are bamboo flutes, ivory trumpets, and the one-string ground bow, which uses a hole in the ground as a resonator. During colonial times, European instruments such as saxophones, trumpets, and guitars were adopted by many African musicians; their sounds were integrated into the traditional patterns. Scale systems vary between regions but are generally diatonic. Music is highly functional in ethnic life, accompanying birth, marriage, hunting, and even political activities. Much music exists solely for entertainment, ranging from narrative songs to highly stylized musical theater. Similarities with other cultures, particularly Indian and Middle Eastern, can be ascribed primarily to the Islamic invasion (7th–11th cent.). See gospel musicgospel music,
American religious musical form that owes much of its origin to the Christian conversion of West Africans enslaved in the American South. Gospel music partly evolved from the songs slaves sang on plantations, notably work songs, and from the Protestant hymns they
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; jazzjazz,
the most significant form of musical expression of African-American culture and arguably the most outstanding contribution the United States has made to the art of music. Origins of Jazz

Jazz developed in the latter part of the 19th cent.
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; spiritualspiritual,
a religious folk song of American origin, particularly associated with African-American Protestants of the southern United States. The African-American spiritual, characterized by syncopation, polyrhythmic structure, and the pentatonic scale of five whole tones, is,
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.

Bibliography

See A. M. Jones, Studies in African Music (2 vol., 1959); R. Brandel, The Music of Central Africa (1961); F. Warren, The Music of Africa (1970); F. Bebey, African Music (1972); W. Bender, Sweet Mother: Modern African Music (1991).

References in periodicals archive ?
Written by the head of a music department at a South African university, Marabi Nights represents the legitimization of black urban South African music as a significant area of creative output and research.
Through her name and emphases Queen Latifah draws upon a tradition of African music and culture to make her criticism of sexism and racism.
MTV South Africa will focus heavily on South African music and music videos, with some international music programming as well as signature MTV programs such as MTV Unplugged, The Real World, MTV Sports and the MTV Video Music Awards.
Hip Hop Africa: New African Music in a Globalizing World.
They were joined by other African music stars including Muntu Valdo, from Cameroon, Gordon Masiala & NKA Musica, Kanda Bongo Man and the UK's Carroll Thompson with a full live band.
N'Dour recently curated a pair of African music concerts at Carnegie Hall and then performed two nights at the venue, first with the Super Etoile, then with the Cairo Orchestra.
A feast of African music and culture is lined up for the weekend.
The International Committee of AFRIMA (All Africa Music Awards) celebrates the life of an African music icon and activist, Hugh Masekela as he passed on peacefully at his country home, Johannesburg, South Africa after a protracted battle with prostate cancer on January 23, 2018 at the aged 78.
Africa" The band was formed in 2012, with their primary aim being to spread and encourage the heritage of African music, especially in relation to Egypt, and so uses many musical influences from various African cultures.
Africa Oye JOIN the UK's largest free celebration of African music and culture which has taken place annually in Liverpool since 1992.
I believe that it is best to start by sharing and revealing to you the founding blocks of African music and dance that was revealed tome through the work and research I conducted in the bush, fields throughout Africa.
The definitive annual celebration of African and international talent and achievement, MAMA 2016 recognises and rewards musicians and achievers who have made the most impact on African music and youth culture over the previous year.

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