Afrikaans


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Afrikaans

(ăf'rəkäns`), member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languagesGermanic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages, spoken by about 470 million people in many parts of the world, but chiefly in Europe and the Western Hemisphere.
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). Although its classification is still disputed, it is generally considered an independent language rather than a dialect or variant of Dutch (see Dutch languageDutch language,
member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Also called Netherlandish, it is spoken by about 15 million inhabitants of the Netherlands, where it is the national language, and by
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). Afrikaans is spoken by close to 8 million people in the Republic of South Africa, where it is an official language, and by about 1.5 million people in Namibia, where it is the common language of most of the population. At least half of its native speakers in South Africa are not white. It arose from the Dutch spoken by the Boers, who emigrated from the Netherlands to South Africa in the 17th cent., but in its written form it dates only from 1861. The grammar has been considerably simplified. Its vocabulary is essentially similar to that of Dutch; Afrikaans has absorbed quite a few words from the Khoisan languages, Bantu (such as words designating local flora and fauna), and English.

Afrikaans

 

Boer language; along with English, one of the state languages of the Republic of South Africa. It belongs to the West Germanic language group and is spoken by more than 3.5 million people (1967). Afrikaans is prevalent throughout much of the Republic of South Africa but primarily in Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The language arose in the 17th century through a process of integration and intermixing of various dialects of the Netherlands (mainly Dutch) with closely related languages (German and English), languages of the local native population (Bushmen, Hottentot, Bantu), and the Creole Malayo-Portuguese language of sailors, traders, and slaves. The specific characteristics of Afrikaans took shape toward the end of the 17th century in the Cape Province. A characteristic feature is the absence of territorial dialects. During the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries, Afrikaans functioned solely as a spoken language. In 1875 the first attempt to fix written norms was undertaken by the Association of True Afrikaners. Writings in Afrikaans did not appear before the 1870’s. Afrikaans did not become the country’s official language with the formation of the Union of South Africa (1910); only in 1925 was it confirmed as a state language.

The phonetic system of Afrikaans is close to the Nether-landic. Its characteristic features are the nasalization of vowels in certain positions and the muting of voiced fricative consonants at the beginning of words. Orthography is based primarily on the phonetic principle. The vocabulary retains a South Dutch base; borrowings from local African languages are insignificant. Afrikaans has an analytic structure and is characterized by weak morphological formation. An intensive process of disintegration of inflection has led to the complete destruction of the system of declension of names and the system of conjugation of verbs (the loss of personal endings). In order to express syntactical relations, the language employs link-words (prepositions and auxiliary verbs, which appear in petrified form) and a method of adjoining, in connection with which word order in a sentence and phrase acquires grammatical meaning.

REFERENCES

Mironov, S. A. lazyk afrikaans. Moscow, 1969.
Botha, M. C, and J. F. Burger. Maskew Miller se Afrikaanse grammatika, 5th ed. Cape Town, 1923.
Bouman, A. C, and E. C. Pienaar. Afrikaanse spraakkuns. Stellenbosch, 1924.
Kloeke, G.G. Herkomst en groei van het Africaans. Leiden, 1950.
Villiers, M. de. Afrikaanse Klankleer. Cape Town-Amsterdam, 1958.
Bosman, D. B. and J. W. van den Merwe [and others]. Tweetalige woordeboek, Afrikaans-Engels, Engels-Afrikaans. Cape Town, 1962.

S. A. MIRONOV

Afrikaans

one of the official languages of the Republic of South Africa, closely related to Dutch
References in periodicals archive ?
A comparison between the Xhosa text and the Afrikaans and English ones, immediately makes clear that Mqhayi worked from the English text.
At launch, GOgetters in Namibia will have access to the best in Afrikaans soapies such as the highly popular and much loved EGOLI--Plek Van Goud, Binneland and Villa Rosa, all which bring their unique storylines filled with action packed drama on the trials and tribulations of a handful of families, including mystery, intrigue and love triangles.
Under the leadership of Dutch Reformed Church minister, Stephanus Jacobus du Toit, a key goal of the Society was to establish Afrikaans as an official, written language rather than simply as a 'Cape Dutch' dialect, which had been illegal to employ in public life since the British took control of the Cape Colony in 1795.
Die ooglopende ooreenkomste met Afrikaans lei taalkundiges egter nie daartoe om Nederlands sonder meer as die mees beduidende bron van Afrikaans te beskou nie.
The Afrikaans colleges were reputed to be everything the "English" ones weren't: conservative, mono-cultural, isolationist.
Examples of two short extracts illustrate Claassen's masterful rendering of the Afrikaans lines into equivalent English:
1 Two Afrikaans Plays: Magrita Prinslo (1896) and Donkerland (1996)
Thus, Davies approaches the subject from a local perspective, where coalitions between Dutch Afrikaners and other native Afrikaans speakers against very real economic realities become the order of the clay.
The Afrikaans language was a key component in the Afrikaner movement that was to be the dominant force in South African politics for most of the twentieth century.
With four South Africans on the books at Ulster this season, there's plenty of Afrikaans being spoken around Ravenhill.
On the morning of June 16, 1976, thousands of black students walked towards Orlando Stadium for a rally to protest against having to learn through Afrikaans carrying placards saying: "If we must do Afrikaans, Vorster must do Zulu.
The use of Afrikaans in schools sparked a bloody 1976 uprising among black students in Johannesburg's Soweto township.