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Aguinaldo, Emilio(āmē`lyō ägēnäl` dō), 1869–1964, Philippine leader. In the insurrection against Spain in 1896 he took command, and by terms of the peace that ended it he went into exile at Hong Kong (1897). After the outbreak of the Spanish-American WarSpanish-American War,
1898, brief conflict between Spain and the United States arising out of Spanish policies in Cuba. It was, to a large degree, brought about by the efforts of U.S. expansionists.
..... Click the link for more information. , Aguinaldo returned to the Philippines and led a Philippine insurrection in concert with U.S. attacking forces. He established a republic with its capital at Malolos and himself as president.
Dissatisfied with the peace treaty that ended the Spanish-American War, he headed a rebellion against U.S. occupying forces from 1899 until he was captured by in 1901. Aguinaldo took an oath of allegiance to the United States, was briefly imprisoned, and retired to private life. In 1935 he ran for president but was defeated by Manuel QuezonQuezon, Manuel Luis
, 1878–1944, first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935–44). While a law student, he joined (1899) Emilio Aguinaldo's insurrectionary army and fought the U.S. forces until 1901. He was imprisoned briefly after the insurrection.
..... Click the link for more information. . Aguinaldo was charged with cooperating with the Japanese occupying the Philippines in World War II, but was not tried. With V. A. Pacis he wrote A Second Look at America (1957).
See biography by C. Quirino (1969).
Born Mar. 22, 1869; died Feb. 6, 1964. Filipino political leader.
Aguinaldo led the bourgeois landowner groups that joined the 1896 revolt against the Spanish oppressors. In 1897 he became president of the Supreme Council of State created by the rebels, but that same year he entered into agreements with Spain, called for an end to the fighting, and left the Philippines. At the start of the Spanish-American War of 1898 he rejoined the rebellion, becoming head of the government and commander-in-chief. In 1899 he became president of the Philippine Republic, which was struggling against the American aggressors. Fearing the sweep of the revolutionary movement, Aguinaldo practiced a policy of compromise with the USA. Captured by American forces in 1901, he called on the people to cease struggling against American colonialists. In the 1930’s he headed the Union of Veterans of the Revolution and the National Socialist Party, both bourgeois-nationalist organizations. He was an unsuccessful presidential candidate in 1935.
G. I. LEVINSON