The air entrainment
rate into a given zone is controlled by the conservation of momentum applied to that zone.
The effects of nozzle geometry on the liquid spray penetration have already been discussed in detail in the previous report  and are therefore only briefly summarized here: Nozzle N3 (with a k-factor of 2) produced sprays with shorter liquid phase penetration than nozzle N1 due to higher air entrainment
and a lower mass flow rate.
If the pressure gradient decreases below equation (5) the upstream meniscus can no longer bridge the gap and air entrainment
2] studied the performance of the aerator of orifice spillway by varying the discharge, gate openings and cavity sub-pressures and presented the results with respect to jet length, cavity pressure and air entrainment
coefficients in the form of non-dimensional plots and developed equations for jet length and air entrainment
coefficient for the orifice spillway aerator.
Also detailed velocity measurements (Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) or Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA)) are needed to determine the velocity distribution in the two-phase unsteady flow due to the compressed air entrainment
into the water column.
The condition of air entrainment
can be expressed as follows 
The novel high throughput method presented here allows for surfactants to be screened by evaluating their effect on air entrainment
and stabilization in a clear coating formulation.
The Mark 10 included a flow accelerator or leak compensating system and the Mark 14 deleted the air entrainment
Due to this fact, in order to prevent excessive air entrainment
, SPs should not only be compatible with cement, but also do not create the air-entraining effect in the paste.
22) showed that the onset of air entrainment
could be postponed to a higher maximum coating speed even at very low concentration of non-interactive spherical PMMA particles in silicone oil.
the ability to handle high degrees of air entrainment
, and built-in smart diagnostics that alert you to problems before they impact the process.
The companion CD-ROM contains winding models, so that users can observe how material properties, winder type, and environmental effects such as air entrainment
and temperature changes affect the stresses in a wound roll.