For this reason, to reduce the combustion noise, the in-cylinder pressure signal could be modified acting on combustion control parameters, such as spark advance, air-fuel ratio
Either regular maintenance of the air-fuel ratio
, better controls such as mass-flow with pressure and temperature compensations, or flue gas sensors can optimize the system for all three properties.
AFR cylinder imbalance is an engine failure condition where the air-fuel ratio
in one or more cylinders is different than the other cylinders due to a cylinder specific malfunction.
Quotation are invited for Annual contract for work of servicing and overhauling of Ignition and Oil Feeding system along with setting of air-fuel ratio
Software strategies to regulate air-fuel ratio
are widely used during transient maneuvers and these strategies are proven to be effective for the reduction of transient soot emissions .
The results of the successful hot start are depicted in Figure 9 in terms of engine speed, fuel temperatures and pressures, as well as the injection duration and the relative air-fuel ratio
The results like TFC, SFC, Thermal efficiency, and air-fuel ratio
show without much difference when comparing between with and without absorption system.
Topics include a mathematical model for gasoline engines, speed control, air-fuel ratio
, receding horizon optimal control, balancing control, residual gas and stochastic control, and benchmark problems for control and modeling of gasoline engines.
This is addressed by engaging a partial throttle to bring the air-fuel ratio
down to 'normal' levels close to 15:1, at which point no oxygen remains in the exhaust and any remaining NOx can be catalytically removed.
This lowers the temperature of combustion in the engine, preventing knocking, expanding the range in which the engine can maintain the ideal air-fuel ratio
and reducing the need to retard ignition timing.
The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio
of the test fuel was estimated to be 7.
These include modulating operation using an electronic cam for closer and more repeatable control of the air-fuel ratio
, as well as options for variable speed drive of the combustion air fan motor to reduce energy consumption and noise levels.