Akko


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Akko

(ăk`ō) or

Acre

(ā`kər, ä`–), Fr. Saint-Jean d'Acre, Arab. Acca, city (1994 pop. 45,300), NW Israel, a port on the Bay of Haifa (an arm of the Mediterranean Sea). Its manufactures include iron and steel, chemicals, and textiles. The city was captured (A.D. 638) by the Arabs, who developed its natural harbor. In 1104 it was captured in the First Crusade and was held by Christians until 1187, when it was taken by Saladin. In the Third Crusade it was won back (1191) by Guy of Lusignan, Richard I of England, and Philip II of France, who gave it to the Knights Hospitalers (the Knights of St. John, hence its French name). For the next century it was the center of the Christian possessions in the Holy Land. Its surrender and virtual destruction by the Saracens in 1291 marked the decline of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Crusades. Akko was taken by the Ottoman Turks in 1517 and was revived in the late 18th cent. under Dahir al-Umar, the local Ottoman ruler. In 1799, Ottoman forces, with the aid of Great Britain, withstood a 61-day siege by Napoleon I. The city was taken in 1832 by Ibrahim Pasha for Muhammad Ali of Egypt, but European and Ottoman forces won it back for the Ottoman Empire in 1840. British troops captured the city in 1918. Akko was assigned to the Arabs in the 1948 partition of Palestine, but it was captured by Israeli forces in the Arab-Israeli war of that year. By the 1990s its population was about three fourths Jewish and one fourth Arab. The city is a popular tourist site. Landmarks include an ancient citadel, walled fortifications, the al-Jazzar mosque, and several churches dating from the Crusades.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the first years of the 12th century, the walled city of Akko was breached and conquered by the Crusader army, lead by Baldwin I, king of Jerusalem.
Birdsong & Robins (1995) added Akko to the Gobiosomatini, but did not comment further on relationships due to the large number of autapomorphies it possesses.
En el analisis del contexto evolutivo de la ciudad de Akko un elemento muy caracteristico es el material de construccion conocido como Kurkar, o sea una piedra sedimentaria particularmente difundida a lo largo de las costas de Asia Menor de color amarillo cuya presencia es abundante entre Haifa y Tel-Aviv.
390) attributes the carrot-shaped type to Akko (following Edna Stern) and points out at least three kiln sites to its north, including Horvath 'Uza, where this type was produced (Reynolds 2005).
In early August, the Vatican strongly rejected an Israeli protest of the appointment of Pierre Mouallem as the bishop of Akko, a diocese of 45,000 Melkite Christians in Galilee.
The Vatican made it known in July that the Pope appointed Mouallem archbishop of Akko, a diocese of 45,000 Melkite Christians in Galilee.
Further south still is Akko, an ancient sea port established by the Egyptians in 1500 BC and used by the Greeks, Phoenicians and Crusaders.
The new fonts - Akko, DIN and Calibri - have been selected to be more environmentally friendly, known for using little ink and paper.
Fallenberg's Akko home is central to a project he's calling "Arabesque"the house will serve as an artists' retreat, exhibition space, bed-and-breakfast, and general hangout for Akko's residents and its visitors.
The Syrian forces regained control of the villages of Akko and Bouz al-Kherba in Lattakia.
The army's air force carried out raids on dens of Jabhat al-Nusra and other affiliated organizations in Bouz al-Kherbeh, Akko and Kabani in Lattakia north-eastern countryside.
Israel "is active from time to time in Syria," Netanyahu said at the Eighth Galilee Conference held in Akko (Acre), which was attended by various leading coalition and opposition MKs.