Al-Battani

Al-Battani

(äl-bät-tä`nē) or

Albatenius

(ăl'bətē`nēəs), b. before 858, d. 929, Arab astronomer and mathematician. He is best known in astronomy for his improvements and corrections of the Ptolemaic tradition. His Kitab al-Zij, which in Latin translation was very influential in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, contains an elaborate set of astronomical tables and discusses a wide range of practical problems in spherical astronomy, some of which were devised for the purpose of solving related astrological problems. He recognized the possibility of an annular eclipse of the sun and obtained the very accurate value of 23°35' for the obliquity of the ecliptic.
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He also worked tirelessly to summarize Zij al-Battani (Ibn Abi Usaybi'ah, 1962).
The author mentions scholars such as: "Jabir ibn Haiyan, al-Kindi, al-Khwarizimi, al-Farghani, al-Razi, al-Masudi, al-Tabari, Thabit ibn Qurra, al-Battani, Hunain ibn Ishaq, Abdul-i-Qasim, al-Farabi, Ibrahim ibn Sinan, al-Biruni, Ibn Sina, Ibn Yunus, al-Karhi, Abdul-i-Wafa, Ali, ibn Abbas, Ibn al-Jazzar, Ibn al-Haitham, Ali ibn Isa, al-Ghazzali, al-Zarqali, and Omar Khayyum" (61) who have contributed significantly to current Western practices and philosophies.
Now the astronomical works of, say, al-Khwarizmi (Indian and Sasanian influence) and al-Battani (Greek influence), and the mathematical works of the same al-Khwarizmi (essentially Babylonian algebra and Indian arithmetic), were particularly influential in Europe, regardless of the fact that they were already out-dated and surpassed in the Islamic world.
In the ninth century, Iranian astronomer al-Battani discovered that for a sundial to function properly, the needle must point toward Polaris (North star).