Luxor

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Luxor

(lŭk`sôr, lo͝ok`–), city (1996 pop. 360,503), central Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile. It is 1 mi (1.6 km) SW of KarnakKarnak
, village (1986 pop. 20,842), central Egypt, on the Nile. It is 1 mi (1.6 km) NE of Luxor and occupies part of the site of Thebes. Remains of the pharaohs abound at Karnak. Most notable is the Great Temple of Amon.
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 and occupies part of the site of ThebesThebes
, city of ancient Egypt. Luxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site. The city developed at a very early date from a number of small villages, particularly one around modern Luxor (then called Epet), but remained relatively obscure until the rise of the Theban family
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. The temple of Luxor, the greatest monument of antiquity in the city, was built in the reign of Amenhotep III (1414 B.C.–1397 B.C.) as a temple to Amon. The temple, 780 ft (230 m) long, was much altered by succeeding pharaohs, especially by Ramses II, who had colossal statues of himself erected on the grounds. In early Christian times the temple was made into a church, and later a shrine to a Muslim saint was built in the great hall. The temple was restored, beginning in 1883. Numerous temples and burial grounds, including the Valley of the Kings, are nearby on the west side of the Nile.

Luxor

 

(Al Uqsur), a city in Egypt in the governorate of Qina, on the right bank of the Middle Nile. Population, about 30,000. Railroad station and airport.

Luxor is a health resort offering a dry, desert climate; there is almost no rain. The mean January temperature is 16.7°C, and the mean March temperature 22.1° PC. Persons suffering from kidney disorders and upper respiratory congestion are treated in Luxor. The season is from October through April. There are hotels and guest houses. A popular tourist attraction, Luxor produces hand-crafted souvenirs.

On the western outskirts of Luxor, on the site of ancient Thebes, is the temple of the gods Amon Ra, Mut, and Khonsu, in which the architectural trends of the New Kingdom (16th to 11th centuries B.C.) were most developed. This is evident in the temple’s grand spatial composition, the spatial organization along the longitudinal axis, the majestic architectural forms, and the extensive use of columns. Built on a north-south axis, the temple includes a rectangular court with double colonnade, a hypostyle with 32 columns, a sanctuary, an entry pylon, and a large central colonnade. Built during the reign of Amenhotep III (second half of the 15th century B.C.), the temple was designed by the architect Amenhotep the Younger; the architect-brothers Hor and Suti helped design the decorative elements. The second pylon and court, surrounded by 74 columns interspersed with statues of pharoahs, were built during the reign of Ramses II (1317-1251 B.C.) by the architect Bekenkhonsu. Six colossal statues of Ramses II were placed in front of the pylon. The temple of Luxor was joined with the temple of Karnak by the paved Avenue of Sphinxes.

Luxor

a town in S Egypt, on the River Nile: the southern part of the site of ancient Thebes; many ruins and tombs, notably the temple built by Amenhotep III (about 1411--1375 bc). Pop.: 183 000 (2005 est.)