Umar or al-Waqidi
shaped, or perhaps reflected, their images of Uthman, a topic to which she returns in later chapters.
The book of al-Waqidi
was not only focusing on the battles but also include the administration of the Medina city.
In the 7th century AD, according to Al-Waqidi
, ostrich eggs were hidden in the Arabian desert `to hold supplies of water' by the Prophet's armies (Serjeant 1976: 109, n.
Bosworth thoroughly outlines which earlier sources (such al-Waqidi
and al-Madaini) are preserved by Ibn Sad and al-Tabari.
and his colleagues were restrained by self-censorship and apologetic, and had to take into account the politics of their time.
Melchert's assertion that today's Umm is missing the treatise entitled Siyar al-Waqidi
narrates that, after having been captured, al-Walid's two brothers, Hisham and Khalid, redeemed their brother from his Muslim captor, 'Abd Allah b.
Ibn Ishaq and al-Waqidi
, in terms of chronology and motivation, but also all too easily adopts their explanation of a religious motivation, rather than considering, for instance, economic reasons for raids on Meccan caravans.
Given that they derive from different sources, 'Uthman's story coming predominantly from al-Waqidi
and al-Walid's from al-Mada'ini, they cannot be one author's literary device to knit together the beginning and end of the Umayyad dynasty.
By contrast, his careful analysis of al-Tabari's construction of the Siffin account and his explanation for al-Tabari's vacillation between Sayf and al-Waqidi
in 'Uthman's story are quite enlightening.
documents at least ninety-three major Muslim "ghazawat" and "saraya" in the first Hijri decade; while Ibn Sa'd cites eighty-five and al-Dhahabi seventy-two.
Jarrar's analysis of these akhbar leads him to the discovery that they emanate from a wide range of transmitters and that the language and style of many of these reports resemble the style of Aban's contemporaries al-Waqidi
and Yunus b.