To the north there are numerous Empire period sites apart from the well-known centers at Bogazkoy and Alaca Hoyuk
The site of Alaca Hoyuk
was chosen for its tremendous archaeological value, since excavations uncovered thirteen royal tombs housing incredibly rich funerary furniture.
1400-1200 BC, at Alishar (von der Osten 1937: figures 239:d1241, d2475), and from the same period at Alaca Hoyuk (Kosay & Akok 1966: plate 25:i256), both in north-central Anatolia.
It is highly significant that zebu appear for the first time also in central and north Anatolia during the Late Bronze Age and into the Iron Age, at Geven Gedigi, Alaca Hoyuk, Alishar and Bogazkoy-Hattusa.
This latter information is particularly pertinent for the identification of Arinna on the ground, although Popko rejects the obvious candidate Alaca Hoyuk
, which he continues to equate with Zippalanda (p.
Gorny in this journal, the Hittite town of Zippalanda is indeed to be identified with the modem site of Alaca Hoyuk, and ancient Ankuwa is probably to be equated with Eskiyapar.
Gorny has published a review article (JAOS 117 : 549--57) of my book Zippalanda: Em Kultzentrum im hethitischen Kleinasien (1994), in which he rejects my identification of Zippalanda with Alaca Hoyuk and of nearby Kalehisar/Karahisar with Mt.
I cannot see any reason for the equation of Alaca Hoyuk with Arinna, as proposed by S.
Gorny questions the view that the representations on the Sphinx Gate at Alaca Hoyuk might have reflected local religious beliefs that were different from the official religion (p.
Popko attempts to secure the identification both of Zippalanda with the well-known Hittite settlement at Alaca Hoyuk (pp.
Inasmuch as the Alaca orthostats play such a significant part in Popko's attempt to link Zippalanda with Alaca Hoyuk (see below), photographs of the stone carvings would have been useful.
1) Popko's publication, however, which identifies Alaca Hoyuk with Zippalanda, calls into question the equation of both Alisar with Ankuwa and Kusakh with Zippalanda.