Alberoni, Giulio


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Alberoni, Giulio

(jo͞o`lyō älbārō`nē), 1664–1752, Italian statesman in Spanish service, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Appointed (1713) representative of the duke of Parma at the court of Philip VPhilip V,
1683–1746, king of Spain (1700–1746), first Bourbon on the Spanish throne. A grandson of Louis XIV of France, he was titular duke of Anjou before Charles II of Spain designated him as his successor.
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 of Spain, Alberoni gained influence and ultimately became de facto prime minister. With the princesse des UrsinsUrsins, Marie Anne de la Trémoille, princesse des
, 1642–1722, French noblewoman and unofficial diplomat. After the death of her first husband, she married (1675) Duke Flavio Orsini, whose name was gallicized into Ursins. She soon separated from her husband.
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 he arranged the marriage of the king with Elizabeth FarneseElizabeth Farnese
, 1692–1766, queen of Spain, second consort of Philip V; niece of Antonio Farnese, duke of Parma. Soon after her marriage (1714), arranged by Cardinal Alberoni and the princesse des Ursins, she gained a strong influence over her weak husband and for some
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. His aims were to strengthen Spain, nullify the Peace of Utrecht (see Utrecht, Peace ofUtrecht, Peace of,
series of treaties that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession. It put an end to French expansion and signaled the rise of the British Empire. By the treaty between England and France (Apr.
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), and crush Austrian hegemony in Italy. The expeditions by which he recovered Sardinia from Austria (1717) and Sicily from Savoy (1718) provoked Britain, the Netherlands, France, and Austria to form the Quadruple AllianceQuadruple Alliance,
any of several European alliances. The Quadruple Alliance of 1718 was formed by Great Britain, France, the Holy Roman emperor, and the Netherlands when Philip V of Spain, guided by Cardinal Alberoni, sought by force to nullify the peace settlements reached
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. Spain was forced to yield, and Philip dismissed and banished (1719) Alberoni, who retired to Rome. He later became papal legate in the Romagna and in Bologna.