Albert II

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Albert II,

1397–1439, Holy Roman Emperor, king of Hungary and Bohemia (1438–39), duke of Austria (1404–38). He was the son-in-law of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, whom he aided against the Hussites of Bohemia. Albert was unable to suppress the Bohemian revolts (see Hussite WarsHussite Wars,
series of conflicts in the 15th cent., caused by the rise of the Hussites in Bohemia and Moravia. It was a religious struggle between Hussites and the Roman Catholic Church, a national struggle between Czechs and Germans, and a social struggle between the landed
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) and subsequently died on a disastrous campaign against the Turks. With Albert began the lasting HapsburgHapsburg
or Habsburg
, ruling house of Austria (1282–1918). Rise to Power

The family, which can be traced to the 10th cent., originally held lands in Alsace and in NW Switzerland. Otto (d.
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 rule over the Holy Roman Empire.

Albert II,

1934–, king of the Belgians (1993–2013), the younger son of Leopold IIILeopold III,
1901–83, king of the Belgians (1934–51), son and successor of Albert I. In 1936, Leopold announced a fundamental change in foreign policy; Belgium abandoned its military alliance with France in favor of a return to neutrality.
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. He married Donna Paola Ruffo de Calabria in 1959; they have three children. Albert became king when BaudouinBaudouin
, 1930–93, king of the Belgians (1951–93), son of Leopold III. He joined his father in exile (1945–50) in Switzerland. After their return to Belgium his father's unpopularity led to Baudouin's appointment (1950) as regent, and on Leopold's abdication
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, his brother, died childless. In 2013 he abdicated in favor of his son PhilippePhilippe,
1960–, king of the Belgians (2013–). Eldest son of Albert II, he was educated at the Belgian Royal Military Academy, Oxford, and Stanford. Philippe married Mathilde d'Udekem d'Acoz in 1999; they have four children.
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.

Albert II,

1958–, prince of MonacoMonaco
, officially Principality of Monaco, independent principality (2005 est. pop. 32,400), c.370 acres (150 hectares), on the Mediterranean Sea, an enclave within Alpes-Maritimes dept., SE France, near the Italian border.
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 (2005–), grad. Amherst College (B.A., 1981). A member of the long-ruling Grimaldi family, he is the son of Prince Rainier IIIRainier III
, 1923–2005, prince of Monaco (1949–2005), a member of the Grimaldi family, which has ruled the tiny principality since 1297. Fiercely anti-Nazi, Ranier served with distinction as an officer in the French Army during World War II.
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, upon whose death he succeeded to the throne, and Princess GraceGrace,
1929–82, princess consort of Monaco, b. Philadelphia as Grace Patricia Kelly. She acted on stage and television in New York, and made her film debut in 1951.
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, the former Grace Kelly. The prince, who trained in financial administration in an American investment bank and a French luxury-goods company, is also an avid sportsman who is expert in soccer, judo, and autoracing, a five-time Olympic bobsledder, and the head (1994–) of Monaco's Olympic Committee.