Albigensian Crusades

Albigensian Crusades

 

crusades conducted 1209–29 (with interruptions) in southern France against the Albigenses, undertaken on the initiative of the papacy in order to suppress a heresy which posed a danger to it. The immediate cause of the crusades was the murder in 1208 of a papal legate by a retainer of Raymond VI, the count of Toulouse. Pope Innocent III excommunicated Raymond VI, who was charged with inspiring the murder, and called for a crusade against the heretics. Philip II (Philip Augustus), the king of France, was engaged in a struggle against England for territory in northern France and refused to head the crusade. The army of crusaders was made up of northern French (in part German) knights, who intended to profit by the rich cities of the south; the clergy of northern France also played an active role. Count Simon de Mont-fort became the leader of the crusaders. In 1209 the crusaders seized and pillaged many southern cities (Béziers, Carcassonne, and others). For southern France the war quickly lost its religious character and was transformed into the resistance of the ProvenÇal people against the northern aggressors. Pedro II, the king of Aragon, entered the war on the side of Raymond VI, who led the military forces of the south. After the battle of 1213 at Muret (in which Pedro died), which ended in the victory of the crusaders, much territory in southern France fell under the control of Simon de Montfort, who acknowledged himself the vassal of the French king. Raymond VI managed to retain only Toulouse, Nímes, Beaucaire, and Agen. In 1215, after a long siege, Toulouse fell and Raymond fled. The Fourth Lateran Council condemned him as a heretic, and his holdings were transferred to Simon de Montfort. However, the resistance of the south was not yet broken. In 1217 a popular uprising in Toulouse was victorious. Taking advantage of this, Raymond returned to Toulouse; his authority was accepted by many cities and areas of Languedoc and Provence, which also rebelled against the crusaders. In 1224, Raymond VII, the son of Raymond VI, drove the forces of A. de Montfort (the son of S. de Montfort, who was killed in 1218) out of Carcassonne. Achieving the acceptance of his conditions—mainly the nonintervention of the pope in secular affairs and in affairs of the local clergy—Louis VIII, the king of France, who had refrained earlier from aiding Montfort because he feared the formation of a strong state in the south, began war against the southerners. The royal forces seized Avignon (1226); many cities of the south then declared their submission to the French throne (A. de Montfort turned his possessions over to the king). As a result, much of Toulouse county was annexed to the royal domain (the Parisian treaty of 1229). The Albigensian wars inflicted great harm on the economy of the south, arresting the development of the cities, which had flourished in the prewar period.

REFERENCES

Osokin, N. A. Istoriia al’bigoitsev i ikh vremeni, vols. 1–2. Kazan’, 1869–72.
Belperron, P. La croisade contre les albigeois et I’union de Languedoc ä la France (1209–1249). Paris, 1942.
References in periodicals archive ?
Marvin justifies such a study on the grounds that to date the campaigns fought during the Albigensian crusades have received relatively cursory attention from scholars preoccupied with providing contextual histories for heresy, inquisition, and crusade.
Deliberately drawing the readers' focus away from overtly religious aspects of the conflict, it provides a valuable counterpoint to scholarship whose long-term approach has obscured a wealth of available detail, and demonstrates that the Albigensian crusades have much more to offer a new generation of researchers.
The typically ignored Albigensian Crusades are addressed, where French nobles in southern France offered protection to the Cathers, Pure Ones, or Albigensians, a heretical movement.
Marvin, The Occitan War: A Military andPolitical History of the Albigensian Crusade, 1209-1218 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008); Mark Pegg, A Most Holy War: The Albigensian Crusade and the Battle for Christendom (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007); Elaine Graham-Leigh, The Southern French Nobility and the Albigensian Crusade (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2005); for earlier accounts focusing on the political consequences of the crusade, see Joseph Strayer, The Albigensian Crusades (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1972, reissued with introduction by Carol Lansing, 1992); Walter L.
The aftermath of the Albigensian Crusade is usually studied in terms of the advent of the inquisitorial tribunals or, in an older and more problematic historiography, in terms of the 'loss of Occitania' and the consolidation of the Capetian royal domain.
See Claire Dutton, "Aspects of the Institutional History of the Albigensian Crusades, 1198-1229" (Ph.
Originated by Pope Innocent III in 1209, the Albigensian Crusade, of which the siege of Penne formed a part, was designed to eradicate heresy in the south of France.
Here is a major gap in virtually all of these studies: consideration of the probability that the Albigensian crusades had, in fact, very little to do with elusive religious differences and everything to do with rivalries between the rising towns, and the rural nobles allied with them, and a religious hierarchy avid to increase its political control and economic assets.
O'Rourke addresses such events as the Albigensian Crusades, the Inquisition, the Massachusetts witch-hunt, the persecution of the early Mormons, the Holocaust, and the Japanese interment camps in the United States during World War II.
who flourished in southern France until their genocide during the Albigensian crusades in the 13th century.
Furthermore, even obvious outsiders, such as the numerous Spanish Republicans who were to be found in the Maquis, benefited from the tradition of sheltering rebels in many areas that dated back to the Revolution, or the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes or even the Albigensian crusades.
Costen makes wide use of both printed primary sources and French and English secondary sources, but one is surprised by the complete omission of Joseph Strayer's The Albigensian Crusades (1971).