Moreover, children of mothers with this allele are less vulnerable to alcohol-related birth defects
In New York State the estimated cost of caring for infants born with alcohol-related birth defects
in 1978 amounted to $155 million in lifetime care.
Fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related birth defects
, and alcohol-related neurodevelopment disorders in neonates are a result of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
Directed by Arno Motulsky, professor of medicine and genetics, they are focusing on genetic factors that predispose some people to diseases such as lung cancer, pesticide poisoning, and alcohol-related birth defects
Similarly, in the study of pregnant, inner-city African American women, only the lighter drinkers who were less at risk of having children with alcohol-related birth defects
heeded warning labels (Hankin et al.
A woman drinking alcohol at any time during her pregnancy, even during the earliest weeks, increases the risk of her fetus developing alcohol-related birth defects
(see the textbox) (Office of the Surgeon General 2005).
Alcohol related effects can be further subdivided into alcohol-related birth defects
(ARBD) and alcohol-related neuro-developmental disorder (ARND).
In 1994 Alcohol Health & Research World (now titled Alcohol Research & Health) last devoted a full issue to the topic of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related birth defects