Alexis

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Alexis

(əlĕk`sĭs) (Aleksey Mikhailovich) (əlyĭksyā` mēkhī`ləvĭch), 1629–76, czar of Russia (1645–76), son and successor of Michael. His reign, marked by numerous popular outbreaks, was crucial for the later development of Russia. A new code of laws was promulgated in 1648 and remained in effect until the early 19th cent.; it favored the middle classes and the landowners, but tied the peasants to the soil. The reforms of Patriarch NikonNikon
, 1605–81, Russian churchman, patriarch of the Russian Orthodox Church (1652–66). He undertook an extremely vigorous reform of church discipline and ritual with a view to purging accretions and eccentricities from the Russian rites.
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 resulted in a dangerous schism in the Russian Church, and Nikon's deposition (1666) was a prelude to the abolition of the Moscow patriarchate in 1721. In 1654 the CossacksCossacks
, Rus. Kazaki, Ukr. Kozaky, peasant-soldiers in Ukraine and in several regions of Russia who, until 1918, held certain privileges in return for rendering military service. The first Cossack companies were formed in the 15th cent.
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 of Ukraine, led in revolt against Poland by Bohdan ChmielnickiChmielnicki, Khmelnytskyy or Khmelnitsky, Bohdan
, c.1595–1657, hetman (leader) of Ukraine. An educated member of the Ukrainian gentry, he early joined the Ukrainian Cossacks.
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, voted for the union of Ukraine with Russia. War with Poland ensued and ended in 1667 with Russia retaining most of Ukraine. A serious revolt against the czar (1670) among the Don Cossacks under Stenka RazinRazin, Stenka
, d. 1671, Don Cossack leader, head of the peasant revolt of 1670. As commander of a band of propertyless Don Cossacks, he raided and pillaged (1667–69) through the lower Volga valley and across the Caspian Sea.
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 was quelled by 1671. Alexis was succeeded by his son Feodor IIIFeodor III,
1661–82, czar of Russia (1676–82), son and successor of Alexis. Although an invalid, Feodor strove to carry out reforms. In 1681 he abolished the system of precedence among the boyar families, whereby appointments in civil and military service were based
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. A younger son, by a second marriage, became Peter IPeter I
or Peter the Great,
1672–1725, czar of Russia (1682–1725), major figure in the development of imperial Russia. Early Life

Peter was the youngest child of Czar Alexis, by Alexis's second wife, Natalya Naryshkin.
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 (Peter the Great).

Alexis

(Aleksey Petrovich) (əlyĭksyā` pētrô`vĭch), 1690–1718, Russian czarevich; son of Peter IPeter I
or Peter the Great,
1672–1725, czar of Russia (1682–1725), major figure in the development of imperial Russia. Early Life

Peter was the youngest child of Czar Alexis, by Alexis's second wife, Natalya Naryshkin.
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 (Peter the Great) by his first wife, and father of Peter IIPeter II,
1715–30, czar of Russia (1727–30). A grandson of Peter I and the son of the czarevich Alexis, he succeeded on the death of Catherine I. He was too young to rule, but he willingly lent himself to a court intrigue, led by the Gallitzin and Dolgoruki families,
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. Opposing his father's anticlerical policy, Alexis renounced his right of succession and fled (1716) to Vienna. Peter, who feared that Alexis might win foreign backing, enticed him to return; he then had him arrested and tried for treason. Sentenced to death, Alexis died from the effects of torture shortly before his scheduled execution.

Alexis

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